Induced flaws in metamaterials can produce useful textures and behavior

February 05, 2020

While a piece of paper is usually flat and floppy, the same piece of paper crumpled into a wad is stiff and round. This demonstrates that scrunching changes the texture and behavior of precisely the same material -- paper.

A new Tel Aviv University study shows how induced defects in metamaterials -- artificial materials the properties of which are different from those in nature -- also produce radically different consistencies and behaviors. The research has far-reaching applications: for the protection of fragile components in systems that undergo mechanical traumas, like passengers in car crashes; for the protection of delicate equipment launched to space; and even for grabbing and manipulating distant objects using a small set of localized manipulations, like minimally invasive surgery.

"We've seen non-symmetric effects of a topological imperfection before. But we've now found a way to create these imperfections in a controlled way," explains Prof. Yair Shokef of TAU's School of Mechanical Engineering, co-author of the new study. "It's a new way of looking at mechanical metamaterials, to borrow concepts from condensed-matter physics and mathematics to study the mechanics of materials."

The new research is the fruit of a collaboration between Prof. Shokef and Dr. Erdal O?uz of TAU and Prof. Martin van Hecke and Anne Meeussen of Leiden University and AMOLF in Amsterdam. The study was published in Nature Physics on January 27. "Since we've developed general design rules, anyone can use our ideas," Prof. Shokef adds.

"We were inspired by LCD-screens that produce different colors through tiny, ordered liquid crystals," Prof. Shokef says. "When you create a defect -- when, for example, you press your thumb against a screen -- you disrupt the order and get a rainbow of colors. The mechanical imperfection changes how your screen functions. That was our jumping off point."

The scientists designed a complex mechanical metamaterial using three-dimensional printing, inserted defects into its structure and showing how such localized defects influenced the mechanical response. The material invented was flat, made out of triangular puzzle pieces with sides that moved by bulging out or dimpling in. When "perfect," the material is soft when squeezed from two sides, but in an imperfect material, one side of the material is soft and the other stiff. This effect flips when the structure is expanded at one side and squeezed at the other: stiff parts become soft, and soft parts stiff.

"That's what we call a global, topological imperfection," Prof. Shokef explains. "It's an irregularity that you can't just remove by locally flipping one puzzle piece. Specifically, we demonstrated how we can use such defects to steer mechanical forces and deformations to desired regions in the system."

The new research advances the understanding of structural defects and their topological properties in condensed-matter physics systems. It also establishes a bridge between periodic, crystal-like metamaterials and disordered mechanical networks, which are often found in biomaterials.

The research team plans to continue their research into three-dimensional complex metamaterials, and to study the richer geometry of imperfections there.
-end-
American Friends of Tel Aviv University supports Israel's most influential, comprehensive and sought-after center of higher learning, Tel Aviv University (TAU). TAU is recognized and celebrated internationally for creating an innovative, entrepreneurial culture on campus that generates inventions, startups and economic development in Israel. TAU is ranked ninth in the world, and first in Israel, for producing start-up founders of billion-dollar companies, an achievement that surpassed several Ivy League universities. To date, 2,500 US patents have been filed by Tel Aviv University researchers -- ranking TAU #1 in Israel, #10 outside of the US and #66 in the world.

American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Related Metamaterials Articles from Brightsurf:

Hyperbolic metamaterials exhibit 2T physics
According to Igor Smolyaninov of the University of Maryland, ''One of the more unusual applications of metamaterials was a theoretical proposal to construct a physical system that would exhibit two-time physics behavior on small scales.''

Origami metamaterials show reversible auxeticity combined with deformation recoverability
New research by Northwestern Engineering and Georgia Institute of Technology expands the understanding of origami structures, opening possibilities for mechanical metamaterials to be used in soft robotics and medical devices.

Temporal aiming with temporal metamaterials
Achieving a controllable manipulation of electromagnetic waves is important in many applications.

VR and AR devices at 1/100 the cost and 1/10,000 the thickness in the works
Professor Junsuk Rho of the departments of mechanical engineering and chemical engineering and doctoral student in mechanical engineering Gwanho Yoon at POSTECH with the research team at Korea University have jointly developed moldable nanomaterials and a printing technology using metamaterials, allowing the commercialization of inexpensive and thin VR and AR devices.

Virtualized metamaterials opens door for acoustics application and beyond
Scientists from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) have realized what they called a virtualized acoustic metamaterial, in digitizing material response to an impulse response stored in a software program.

In acoustic waves, engineers break reciprocity with 'spacetime-varying metamaterials'
Working in an emerging field known to as 'spacetime-varying metamaterials,' University at Buffalo engineers have demonstrated the ability to break reciprocity in acoustic waves.

Induced flaws in metamaterials can produce useful textures and behavior
A new Tel Aviv University study shows how induced defects in metamaterials -- artificial materials the properties of which are different from those in nature -- also produce radically different consistencies and behaviors.

Researchers use metamaterials to create two-part optical security features
Researchers have developed advanced optical security features that use a two-piece metamaterial system to create a difficult-to-replicate optical phenomenon.

Artificial intelligence (AI) designs metamaterials used in the invisibility cloak
The research group of Prof. Junsuk Rho, Sunae So and Jungho Mun of Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering at POSTECH developed a design with a higher degree of freedom which allows to choose materials and to design photonic structures arbitrarily by using Deep Learning.

Scientists take a 'metamaterials' approach to earthquake damage
At the SSA 2019 Annual Meeting, seismologists from around the world will discuss how metamaterial theory might be applied to everything from developing deflective barriers to manipulating the layout of buildings within a city as a way to minimize the impact of damaging surface seismic waves.

Read More: Metamaterials News and Metamaterials Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.