Nav: Home

Stopping onchocerciasis on two sides of a border

February 06, 2020

Pathogens don't pay attention to international borders, with transmission and endemic areas often stretching between countries. In the new work, Moses Katabarwa of the Carter Center, USA, and colleagues report in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases the first known and successful coordinated cross-border mass drug administration (MDA) effort with ivermectin to stop onchocerciasis.

Onchocerciasis is a tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus, spread through Simulium flies that breed in fast flowing rivers and streams in Africa. The disease, also called "river blindness," can cause skin and eye symptoms. An onchocerciasis transmission zone known as Galabat-Metema is shared between Sudan and Ethiopia respectively, both countries having established a nationwide policy for elimination of the disease. Baseline disease mapping of 0-18% among 14 villages in Galabat, Sudan and 14-44% in 17 villages in the Metema district of Ethiopia.

Mass drug administration was provided once and subsequently twice per year in the area, with two doses per eligible person-per-year beginning in 2016 in Ethiopia and 2008 in Sudan. To determine if transmission had been interrupted on both side of the border, blood tests for onchocerciasis antibody were carried out in children and vector Simullium black flies were tested in 'pools' of 100 flies/pool for O. volvulus DNA in both countries.

Blood tests on 10,003 children were all negative and only one vector positive pool among 36,731 flies was positive. The WHO criteria for stopping MDA were met, and MDA was halted at the end of 2017 in a coordinated binational manner through a process of close collaboration and communication between the governments of Sudan and Ethiopia. This is the first repot of such a cross border stop MDA decision.

"Onchocerciasis transmission zones may cross international borders and so present a unique challenge of coordination between the different national program activities on each side of the border," the researchers say. "Several lessons were learned from this experience."
-end-
In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available paper: http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0007830

Citation: Katabarwa MN, Zarroug IMA, Negussu N, Aziz NM, Tadesse Z, et al. (2020) The Galabat-Metema cross-border onchocerciasis focus: The first coordinated interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Africa. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14(2): e0007830. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007830

Funding: No, the authors received no specific funding for this study.

Competing Interests: No authors have competing interests.

PLOS

Related Children Articles:

Black children with cancer three times less likely to receive proton radiotherapy than White children
A retrospective analysis led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital has found racial disparities in the use of the therapy for patients enrolled in trials.
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: First Europe-wide study of children confirms COVID-19 predominately causes mild disease in children and fatalities are very rare
Children with COVID-19 generally experience a mild disease and fatalities are very rare, according to a study of 582 patients from across Europe published today in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health journal.
Children not immune to coronavirus; new study from pandemic epicenter describes severe COVID-19 response in children
- While most children infected with the novel coronavirus have mild symptoms, a subset requires hospitalization and a small number require intensive care.
How many children is enough?
Most Russians would like to have two children: a boy and a girl.
Preterm children have similar temperament to children who were institutionally deprived
A child's temperament is affected by the early stages of their life.
Only-children more likely to be obese than children with siblings
Families with multiple children tend to make more healthy eating decisions than families with a single child.
Children living in countryside outperform children living in metropolitan area in motor skills
Residential density is related to children's motor skills, engagement in outdoor play and organised sports. that Finnish children living in the countryside spent more time outdoors and had better motor skills than their age peers in the metropolitan area.
Hispanic and black children more likely to miss school due to eczema than white children
In a study that highlights racial disparities in the everyday impact of eczema, new research shows Hispanic and black children are more likely than white children to miss school due to the chronic skin disease.
Children, their parents, and health professionals often underestimate children's higher weight status
More than half of parents underestimated their children's classification as overweight or obese -- children themselves and health professionals also share this misperception, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, UK (April 28-May 1).
Children with autism are in 'in-tune' with mom's feelings like other children
New research addresses limitations of prior autism spectrum disorder (ASD) studies on facial emotion recognition by using five distinct facial emotions in unfamiliar and familiar (mom) faces to test the influence of familiarity in children with and without ASD.
More Children News and Children Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: The Power Of Spaces
How do spaces shape the human experience? In what ways do our rooms, homes, and buildings give us meaning and purpose? This hour, TED speakers explore the power of the spaces we make and inhabit. Guests include architect Michael Murphy, musician David Byrne, artist Es Devlin, and architect Siamak Hariri.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#576 Science Communication in Creative Places
When you think of science communication, you might think of TED talks or museum talks or video talks, or... people giving lectures. It's a lot of people talking. But there's more to sci comm than that. This week host Bethany Brookshire talks to three people who have looked at science communication in places you might not expect it. We'll speak with Mauna Dasari, a graduate student at Notre Dame, about making mammals into a March Madness match. We'll talk with Sarah Garner, director of the Pathologists Assistant Program at Tulane University School of Medicine, who takes pathology instruction out of...
Now Playing: Radiolab

What If?
There's plenty of speculation about what Donald Trump might do in the wake of the election. Would he dispute the results if he loses? Would he simply refuse to leave office, or even try to use the military to maintain control? Last summer, Rosa Brooks got together a team of experts and political operatives from both sides of the aisle to ask a slightly different question. Rather than arguing about whether he'd do those things, they dug into what exactly would happen if he did. Part war game part choose your own adventure, Rosa's Transition Integrity Project doesn't give us any predictions, and it isn't a referendum on Trump. Instead, it's a deeply illuminating stress test on our laws, our institutions, and on the commitment to democracy written into the constitution. This episode was reported by Bethel Habte, with help from Tracie Hunte, and produced by Bethel Habte. Jeremy Bloom provided original music. Support Radiolab by becoming a member today at Radiolab.org/donate.     You can read The Transition Integrity Project's report here.