Nav: Home

Aggressive clearance key to best outcome after a brain hemorrhage

February 07, 2019

In the first study to identify specific surgical goals for the treatment of an intracerebral hemorrhage--the deadliest and most disabling type of stroke--a team of neurosurgeons found that at least 70 percent of the hemorrhage has to be removed for patients to make a meaningful recovery.

Worldwide, more than 1 million people each year develop an intracerebral hemorrhage. It occurs when a diseased blood vessel within the brain bursts, allowing blood to leak inside the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes make up about 12 percent of all strokes, but they cause about 40 percent of all stroke deaths. The most common risk factor is high blood pressure.

In this study, the researchers found that removing 70 percent or more of the hemorrhage could produce better outcomes. Ideally, there should be no more than 15 milliliters, about a tablespoon of clotted blood, remaining at the site of the injury. Anything less than that was even better.

This is the first surgical trial to connect specific volume-reduction goals with improved functional outcomes. Prior to this trial, known as MISTIE III (Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus rt-PA for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation), there was no specified goal for clot removal.

"We found that for surgeons treating a brain hemorrhage, it is critical to maximize the amount of blood the surgeon can safely remove from the site," said study leader Issam Awad, MD, the John Harper Seeley Professor in Neurological Sciences and Director of Neurovascular Surgery at the University of Chicago Medicine. "Unless at least 70 percent of the clot is promptly removed and only a very small residual amount of blood remains, the potential benefits of surgery will not be realized."

"This cannot be taken for granted," he added. "Intracerebral hemorrhage is a catastrophic illness. When surgery is performed, we must be certain that the blood is in fact removed. Surprisingly, this had not been considered in assessing the effectiveness of surgery. This is the first surgical trial to demonstrate a clear and urgent goal for reduction of intracerebral hemorrhage volume."

Two research teams will present data from MISTIE III in back-to-back "late-breaking-science" presentations at the American Heart Association's International Stroke Conference in Honolulu, on Thursday, Feb. 7, 2019. Awad will report on the ability of aggressive clot removal to produce better functional outcomes. Daniel Hanley, MD, from Johns Hopkins Medicine, will present data on overall analyses of safety and efficacy of the surgery.

The trial involved 78 hospitals in North America, Europe and Asia. Between December 30, 2013 and August 15, 2017, researchers enrolled 506 patients at least 18 years old who had suffered a spontaneous, non-traumatic, intracerebral hemorrhage in the previous 24 hours. Patients were promptly treated and periodically evaluated at regular intervals for one year.

About half (255) of the patients enrolled in the trial were randomly assigned to the MISTIE surgical procedure. The other 251 patients were assigned to the study's medical arm, which includes ICU care but no surgical intervention. Thirteen patients left the surgical arm for various reasons, so 242 patients received the procedure and were available for evaluation.

The surgical approach to an intracerebral hemorrhage relies on careful mapping of the injury with computed tomography (CT) guidance. The surgical team then drills a small hole in the patient's skull and inserts a tiny rigid cannula. The surgeons maneuver the cannula to the blood that has accumulated in the brain and aspirate as much of it as possible.

Since the blood has already clotted, it cannot all be suctioned, so a softer catheter is placed in the remaining clot, secured in place, and the clot-busting drug alteplase (marketed as Activase®) is given through the catheter to loosen the clot and allow it to drain into a bag. This removes as much of the damage-causing blood as possible.

The surgery itself takes about an hour, but the alteplase injection is repeated every eight hours. Treatment averaged 2 days after the stroke, with a range of 1-4 days. Prior to this study, it was not known how much of the blood must be removed to gain the benefit of the procedure.

In 59 percent of the cases in the MISTIE III trial, the teams succeeded in reducing the clot to 15 milliliters or less. With the removal of each additional milliliter of clotted blood, the odds of a good outcome improved 10 percent.

Some of these operations "were remarkable," Awad said. Many of the surgeons were able to approach "a clot the size of a tennis ball and gently reduce it to less than 5 milliliters."

Patients could survive with less surgery and manipulation, Awad suggested. "If you get half of the clot out, you can save the person's life," he said. "But to get real functional benefit, you have to go all the way. You have to remove most, if not all, of the clot."
The MISTIE III trial was sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the National Institutes of Health. Trial results will be published in The Lancet and Neurosurgery. Additional authors include Sean Polster, Julián Carrión-Penagos, Ying Cao, Agnieszka Stadnik, Maged Fam, Janne Koskimäki, and Romuald Girard from the University of Chicago; Richard Thompson, Karen Lane, Nichol McBee, Wendy Ziai and Yi Hao from Johns Hopkins University; Patricia Money and Mario Zuccarello, from the University of Cincinnati; Robert Dodd and Andrew P. Carlson from Stanford University; Paul Camarata from the University of Kansas; Jean-Louis Caron from the University of Texas; Mark R. Harrigan from the University of Alabama; and David Mendelow from the Institute of Neuroscience at Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

University of Chicago Medical Center

Related Stroke Articles:

Retraining the brain to see after stroke
A new study out today in Neurology, provides the first evidence that rigorous visual training restores rudimentary sight in patients who went partially blind after suffering a stroke, while patients who did not train continued to get progressively worse.
Catheter ablations reduce risks of stroke in heart patients with stroke history, study finds
Atrial fibrillation patients with a prior history of stroke who undergo catheter ablation to treat the abnormal heart rhythm lower their long-term risk of a recurrent stroke by 50 percent, according to new research from the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute.
Imaging stroke risk in 4-D
A new MRI technique developed at Northwestern University detects blood flow velocity to identify who is most at risk for stroke, so they can be treated accordingly.
Biomarkers may help better predict who will have a stroke
People with high levels of four biomarkers in the blood may be more likely to develop a stroke than people with low levels of the biomarkers, according to a study published in the Aug.
Pre-stroke risk factors influence long-term future stroke, dementia risk
If you had heart disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, before your first stoke, your risk of suffering subsequent strokes and dementia long after your initial stroke may be higher.
Intervention methods of stroke need to focus on prevention for blacks to reduce stroke mortality
Blacks are four times more likely than their white counterparts to die from stroke at age 45.
Study shows area undamaged by stroke remains so, regardless of time stroke is left untreated
A study led by Achala Vagal, M.D., associate professor at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and a UC Health radiologist, looked at a group of untreated acute stroke patients and found that there was no evidence of time dependence on damage outcomes for the penumbra, or tissue that is at risk of progressing to dead tissue but is still salvageable if blood flow is returned in a stroke, but rather an association with collateral flow -- or rerouting of blood through clear vessels.
Immediate aspirin after mini-stroke substantially reduces risk of major stroke
Using aspirin urgently could substantially reduce the risk of major strokes in patients who have minor 'warning' events.
SAGE launches the European Stroke Journal with the European Stroke Organisation
SAGE, a world leading independent and academic publisher, is delighted to announce the launch of the European Stroke Journal, the flagship journal of the European Stroke Organisation.
The S-stroke or I-stroke?
The year 2016 is an Olympic year. Developments in high-performance swimwear for swimming continue to advance, along with other areas of scientific research.

Related Stroke Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Digital Manipulation
Technology has reshaped our lives in amazing ways. But at what cost? This hour, TED speakers reveal how what we see, read, believe — even how we vote — can be manipulated by the technology we use. Guests include journalist Carole Cadwalladr, consumer advocate Finn Myrstad, writer and marketing professor Scott Galloway, behavioral designer Nir Eyal, and computer graphics researcher Doug Roble.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#530 Why Aren't We Dead Yet?
We only notice our immune systems when they aren't working properly, or when they're under attack. How does our immune system understand what bits of us are us, and what bits are invading germs and viruses? How different are human immune systems from the immune systems of other creatures? And is the immune system so often the target of sketchy medical advice? Those questions and more, this week in our conversation with author Idan Ben-Barak about his book "Why Aren't We Dead Yet?: The Survivor’s Guide to the Immune System".