Scientists Closer To Understanding How Internal Clock Resets

February 11, 1997

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- A five-minute flash of light in the night can reset an animal's biological clock, say scientists who report getting closer to understanding how that adjustment happens.

Two years ago, University of Illinois researchers reported in the journal Science that glutamate, a common neurotransmitter produced in nerve cells, was the messenger of light between the retina and the brain. Now, in the Jan. 15 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, the U. of I. team details the earliest known molecular change that occurs in the time-shifting pathway.

Knowing how to adjust biological rhythms is of obvious interest to long-distance air travelers, night-shift workers and people suffering from winter depression.

In the new report, based on their work administering glutamate in rats, the researchers -- led by Martha U. Gillette, a professor of cell and structural biology and of physiology, and Jian M. Ding, a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellow -- propose a signaling pathway:

Light causes the retina to release glutamate, which binds to receptors in a portion of the brain's hypothalamus known as the suprachiastic nucleus. The receptor stimulates an enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide, a gas that can freely flow through other cell membranes. The nitric oxide, the team discovered, activates additional enzymes that add phosphate to a nuclear protein called CREB.

Once CREB receives the phosphate, Ding said, the pivotal message is delivered to turn on genes that reset the clock. While additional steps may be involved, identifying the precise genes eventually may help scientists develop artificial techniques for readjusting daily rhythms.

As they reported two years ago, glutamate given during the day again did not alter the animals' biological clocks, suggesting strongly that the time of light treatment may be vitally important. The key to the sensitivity may lie in the so-far unidentified signaling elements that occur between the synthesis of nitric oxide and the phosphorous addition to CREB, the scientists conclude.

"When you give an animal a flash of light at night for just five minutes, you can permanently reset its clock," Ding said. "Such a long-lasting behavioral change requires an alteration in gene expression. Since P-CREB [the phosphate-containing form] is induced in five minutes after light exposure, it is the earliest possible molecular change we've caught in a complicated sequence of events.

"When you learn how to swim or ride a bicycle, you remember how for the rest of your life," he added. "To the eyes of a neurobiologist, the molecular mechanism mediating learning and memory is quite similar to that mediating circadian rhythm phase-shifting."

The research was funded by a Public Health Service grant and by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. Other U. of I. co-authors in the January report were Lia E. Faiman, a senior research scientist, and graduate students William J. Hurst and Liana R. Kuriashkina.
-end-


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Related Biological Clock Articles from Brightsurf:

Biological clock and extra gene pairs control important plant functions
New understanding of circadian rhythms could be key to stronger, drought-resistant crops in the face of climate change.

Researchers deconstruct the "biological clock" that regulates birdsong
The precise timing of a bird's complex song is driven in part by the often-ignored ''wires'' connecting neurons in the bird's brain, according to a new study.

Sodium found to regulate the biological clock of mice
A new study from McGill University shows that increases in the concentrations of blood sodium can have an influence on the biological clock of mice, opening new research avenues for potentially treating the negative effects associated with long distance travel or shift work.

Singaporeans suffering from sleep disorders may have help from mechanism regulating biological clock
Recent sleep surveys show that Singaporeans are among the world's most sleep deprived people.

Researchers uncover importance of aligning biological clock with day-night cycles
UC San Diego scientists studying bacteria have identified the roots of a behavior that is regulated by the circadian clock.

Novel melatonin receptor molecules make possible therapies to adjust biological clock
Researchers have discovered through a vast and novel computational library the first molecules that can modulate circadian rhythms by binding with high selectivity to the MT1 melatonin receptor in the brain.

Our biological clock plays crucial role in healing from surgery
If you have just had knee, shoulder or hip surgery, you may want to take anti-inflammatories in the morning or at noon, but not at night.

Study suggests biological clock is key to reducing heart damage from radiation therapy
A new study suggests that the biological clock is involved in heart toxicity from radiation therapy and could be harnessed as part of a preventive strategy.

Study finds dopamine, biological clock link to snacking, overeating and obesity
A new study finds that the pleasure center of the brain and the brain's biological clock are linked, and that high-calorie foods -- which bring pleasure -- disrupt normal feeding schedules, resulting in overconsumption.

Eating in sync with biological clock could replace problematic diabetes treatment
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that a starch-rich breakfast consumed early in the morning coupled with a small dinner could replace insulin injections and other diabetes medications for many diabetics.

Read More: Biological Clock News and Biological Clock Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.