News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

February 13, 2007

  1. OR Genes and Axonal Projections in Zebrafish
    Yuki Sato, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, and Yoshihiro Yoshihara

    Thanks to Buck and Axel and colleagues, most neuroscientists are aware of the precise topographical map of the mouse olfactory nerve projection in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single odorant receptor (OR), and OSNs expressing a given OR converge on a set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. This week, Sato et al. mapped the zebrafish axonal projection using a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene. The transgene contained a cluster of 16 OR genes, two of which (OR111-7 and OR103-1) were replaced with yellow and cyan membrane-targeted reporters. Distinct sets of OSNs were fluorescently labeled, whereas their axons targeted the same cluster of glomeruli. For the OR111 subfamily, each OSN expressed a single OR, but a few OSNs coexpressed OR111 and OR103 subfamily members, and OR103-1 was always coexpressed with OR103-2/103-5. Such dual receptor expression has also been seen in Drosophila. Maybe fish are a bit more like flies than mice in this case.

  2. NGFI-A and Epigenetic Programming
    Ian C. G. Weaver, Ana C. D'Alessio, Shelley E. Brown, Ian C. Hellstrom, Sergiy Dymov, Shakti Sharma, Moshe Szyf, and Michael J. Meaney

    To the list of things for which we should thank our mothers, add epigenetic programming. Adult offspring of rat moms who provide high licking and grooming behavior (High LG mothers) have lower stress responses and increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. This week, Weaver et al. provide further evidence for the underlying mechanism. The GR promoter contains a response element for the transcription factor nerve growth factor-inducible protein A (NGFI-A), and binding of NGFI-A increases in offspring of High LG mothers. Increased maternal care is also associated with demethylation of a 5' CpG dinucleotide site within this response element. The authors show that NGFI-A binding activated GR gene expression, whereas DNA methylation reduced NGFI-A binding and transcriptional activity. Because the 5' CpG dinucleotide is hypermethylated at birth, the authors propose that early maternal care triggers epigenetic reprogramming of the GR promoter via an NGFI-A-dependent cascade.

  3. "Liking," "Wanting," and Hedonic Hotspots
    Kyle S. Smith and Kent C. Berridge

    This week, Smith and Berridge investigated the interaction of two so-called hotspots for hedonic impact ("liking") and incentive motivation ("wanting") responses associated with compulsive behaviors. These 1 mm3 hotspots reside in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and in the ventral pallidum and are reciprocally connected. To test the interaction between hotspots, the authors used a sucrose stimulus and tested rats for changes in Fos expression and for behavioral "liking" and "wanting" responses. Injection of the μ-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2-N-Me- Phe4-glycol 5-enkephalin (DAMGO) at either hotspot increased Fos expression locally and at the distant hotspot. DAMGO injections at either site also increased "liking" responses such as tongue protrusions and "wanting" behavior such as food consumption. However, injection of an opioid antagonist, naloxone, at one site and DAMGO at the other revealed a difference. Both hotspots were required for opioid enhancement of "liking" responses, but stimulation of the NAc hotspot was sufficient to trigger "wanting."

  4. Getting ADAM10 to the Membrane
    Elena Marcello, Fabrizio Gardoni, Daniela Mauceri, Stefano Romorini, Andreas Jeromin, Roberta Epis, Barbara Borroni, Flaminio Cattabeni, Carlo Sala, Alessandro Padovani, and Monica Di Luca

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) takes one of two major processing routes: either it is cleaved by ß-secretase and ?-secretase to form amyloid ß (Aß), or it is cleaved by a-secretase. The latter cleaves within the Aß sequence, thus avoiding the production of amyloidogenic fragments. In this week's Journal, Marcello et al. report that the putative a-secretase ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) interacts directly with synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) involved in trafficking of glutamate receptors. The interaction, via the SH3 domain of SAP97, was required for ADAM10 localization at postsynaptic membranes. Glutamate receptor activation increased SAP97-mediated membrane trafficking of ADAM10 and increased APP cleavage at the a-secretase site. Because the a-secretase activity attributed to ADAM10 occurs in the membrane compartment, the results indicate a possible link between synaptic function and APP processing.
-end-


Society for Neuroscience

Related Mothers Articles from Brightsurf:

Mothers ensure their offspring's success through epigenetics
Parents pass genes along to their offspring which equip them for their future life.

Should infants be separated from COVID-19-positive mothers?
In a new commentary, Alison Stuebe, MD, President of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, addresses the risks and benefits of separating infants from COVID-19-positive mothers following birth.

Children of abused mothers 50% more likely to have low IQ
Children of women who reported domestic violence in pregnancy or during the first six years of the child's life are almost 50% more likely to have a low IQ at age 8, research finds.

When do alcohol-dependent mothers parent harshly?
While parents with substance use disorders are more likely to treat their children harshly, they don't do so all the time.

Children of anxious mothers twice as likely to have hyperactivity in adolescence
A large study has shown that children of mothers who are anxious during pregnancy and in the first few years of the child's life have twice the risk of having hyperactivity symptoms at age 16.

Bonobo mothers help their sons to have more offspring
In many social animal species individuals share child-rearing duties, but new research from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, finds that bonobo mothers go the extra step and actually take action to ensure their sons will become fathers.

Stressed mothers -- overweight children
Every tenth child is overweight, every twentieth even obese. Scientists at the Berlin Institute of Health / Berlin Institute of Health, together with colleagues at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, have now elucidated a relationship that has not extensively been studied so far.

Children whose mothers use marijuana may try it at a younger age
Children whose mothers use marijuana are more likely to start their own marijuana use an average of two years earlier than children whose mothers don't use the drug, according to a new study from Harvard T.H.

Children whose mothers use marijuana are more likely to try it at younger age
When mothers use marijuana during the first 12 years of their child's life, their cannabis-using children are more likely to start at an earlier age than children of non-using mothers, according to a new study from the Harvard T.H.

Breastfeeding may help protect mothers against stroke
Breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of stroke in post-menopausal women who reported breastfeeding at least one child.

Read More: Mothers News and Mothers Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.