Engineers Build Window Onto Formation Of Atomic Layers

February 24, 1998

ANN ARBOR---University of Michigan engineers have built a device that, for the first time, allows them to watch how ultra-thin layers of "sputter deposited" atoms form on surfaces during growth of coatings.

John Bilello and Steven Yalisove, researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, built the instrument to help them observe the process of sputtering---a method of "spray painting" films of atoms onto another surface. Sputtering is a common way of coating materials to make them stronger and more impervious to corrosion, friction, wear and temperature. While the technique is used in applications ranging from microelectronics to protecting jet engine turbine blades from high temperature erosion, it was never before possible to monitor the process as it happened.

In 1995, Bilello and Yalisove were the first researchers to use sputtering to make "pin-stripe" coatings, patterns of alternating thick and thin nanolayers that dramatically improved material strength and toughness. These so-called multiscalar microstructures are now receiving increasing attention. But the process demands precision, which is hard to achieve, and, at least in the past, impossible to verify until after the layering is complete.

Their latest advance, however, which bounces non-interactive high intensity X-rays off the atoms being deposited, now allows them to see sputtering deposition---how the layers of atoms arrange themselves on a surface---in real time. "Nobody has ever been able to measure the characteristics of the film while it's going on---until now," said Prof. Bilello.

Observing the process of deposition, they said, could enable scientists to make changes during sputtering to maximize all the functional properties of a material they are coating, including stress and strain. Bilello and Yalisove designed their device for their work in "sputter plasmas"---bombarding argon ions into solid materials targets to vaporize them---a method they liken to "atomic sand blasting."

This process creates a high energy plasma which coats other metals, ceramics and polymers. Eventually, said Prof. Yalisove, the in-situ X-ray characterization technique will be widely available. "As X-ray sources get smaller, and advanced detectors improve in efficiency, we think everyone will need systems similar to our design to help improve manufacturing throughput and quality control," he said.

Funding for the research came from the U.S. Army Research Office and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
-end-


University of Michigan

Related Atoms Articles from Brightsurf:

How to gently caress atoms
It is extremely difficult to study oxygen molecules on the metal oxide surface without altering them.

'Hot and messy' entanglement of 15 trillion atoms
In a study published in Nature Communications, ICFO, HDU and UPV researchers report the production of a giant entangled state that may help medical researchers detect extremely faint magnetic signals from the brain.

Exciting apparatus helps atoms see the light
Researchers in the Light-Matter Interactions for Quantum Technologies Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have generated Rydberg atoms - unusually large excited atoms - near nanometer-thin optical fibers.

Manipulating atoms to make better superconductors
A new study by University of Illinois at Chicago researchers published in the journal Nature Communications shows that it is possible to manipulate individual atoms so that they begin working in a collective pattern that has the potential to become superconducting at higher temperatures.

Grabbing atoms
In a first for quantum physics, University of Otago researchers have 'held' individual atoms in place and observed previously unseen complex atomic interactions.

Chemists allow boron atoms to migrate
Organic molecules with atoms of the semi-metal boron are important building blocks for synthesis products to produce drugs and agricultural chemicals.

2D materials: arrangement of atoms measured in silicene
Silicene consists of a single layer of silicon atoms. In contrast to the ultra-flat material graphene, which is made of carbon, silicene shows surface irregularities that influence its electronic properties.

Atoms don't like jumping rope
Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies.

2000 atoms in two places at once
The quantum superposition principle has been tested on a scale as never before in a new study by scientists at the University of Vienna.

Single atoms as catalysts
Only the outermost layer of a catalyst can play a role in chemical reactions.

Read More: Atoms News and Atoms Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.