Global malaria map

February 25, 2008

Global malaria map released

More than 2.3 billion people, or about 35% percent of the world's population, live in areas where there is risk of a deadly form of malaria, according to a spatial distribution map published in PLoS Medicine.

Malaria is a parasitic disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. 500 million cases of malaria occur every year, and one million people, mostly children living in sub-Saharan Africa, die as a result. The parasite mainly responsible for these deaths--Plasmodium falciparum--is transmitted to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

An accurate spatial description of malaria risk is critical in guiding campaigns to control the disease. To construct their map, Robert W. Snow and colleagues at the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP)- a collaboration between the Kenyan Medical Research Institute and the University of Oxford, funded by the Wellcome Trust -collected information including nationally reported data on malaria cases, travel advisories, and surveys in several thousand communities across 87 countries. They also incorporated information about climatic conditions that affect the parasite's life cycle and consequently the likelihood of active transmission. For example, below a certain temperature, infected mosquitoes reach the end of their natural life span before the parasite has had time to develop into a stage that can infect humans, which means that malaria transmission does not occur.

The map not only shows areas of high P. falciparum risk, but also provides an estimate of the number of people who are living in areas where malaria transmission is low, and where it should be possible to use existing control strategies to eliminate the parasite. In addition, it identifies large regions of Africa where P. falciparum might be more amenable to elimination than previously thought.

By publishing their research online in an open access journal, the authors intend to guarantee global availability and facilitate ongoing updates, by the open access release of the maps via their website (http://www.map.ox.ac.uk), as new data become available.

Citation: Guerra CA, Gikandi PW, Tatem AJ, Noor AM, Smith DL, et al. (2008) The limits and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission: Implications for malaria control and elimination worldwide. PLoS Med 5(2): e38

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050038

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-05-02-snow.pdf

CONTACT:
Robert Snow
Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group
P.O. Box 43640
Nairobi, 00100
Kenya
+254 (0) 2 2720163
rsnow@nairobi.kemri-wellcome.org

Simon Hay
University of Oxford
Department of Zoology
Tinbergen Building
South Parks Road
Oxford
United Kingdom
+44 1865 271243
+44 1865 271243 (fax)
simon.hay@zoo.ox.ac.uk




New formulation of paraquat improves survival rates in cases of self-poisoning

In this week's PLoS Medicine, a study by Martin Wilks (of Sygenta) and independent scientists from Sri Lanka, the United Kingdom and Australia, compared the outcome of paraquat self-poisoning with the standard formulation against a new formulation following its introduction into Sri Lanka.

The study is discussed in a related expert commentary by Nick Bateman - uninvolved with the research - who argues the findings can "focus attention on simple strategies to reduce paraquat-induced death (and morbidity from this and other pesticides) in Asia".

Citation: Wilks MF, Fernando R, Ariyananda PL, Eddleston M, Berry DJ, et al. (2008) Improvement in survival after paraquat ingestion following introduction of a new formulation in Sri Lanka. PLoS Med 5(2): e49.

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050049

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-05-02-wilks.pdf

CONTACT:
Martin Wilks
Syngenta Crop Protection AG
Global Stewardship
WRO 1004.3.34
Basel, Basel 4002
Switzerland
+41613235723
+41613237779 (fax)
martin.wilks@syngenta.com

Related PLoS Medicine perspective:

Citation: Bateman DN (2008) New formulation of paraquat: A step forward but in the wrong direction? PLoS Med 5(2): e58.

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050058

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-05-02-bateman.pdf

CONTACT:
Nick Bateman
National Poisons Information Service
Edinburgh
United Kingdom
nick.bateman@luht.scot.nhs.uk
-end-
About PLoS Medicine

PLoS Medicine is an open access, freely available international medical journal. It publishes original research that enhances our understanding of human health and disease, together with commentary and analysis of important global health issues. For more information, visit http://www.plosmedicine.org

About the Public Library of Science

The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a non-profit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. For more information, visit http://www.plos.org

PLOS

Related Malaria Articles from Brightsurf:

Clocking in with malaria parasites
Discovery of a malaria parasite's internal clock could lead to new treatment strategies.

Breakthrough in malaria research
An international scientific consortium led by the cell biologists Volker Heussler from the University of Bern and Oliver Billker from the UmeƄ University in Sweden has for the first time systematically investigated the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium throughout its life cycle in a large-scale experiment.

Scientists close in on malaria vaccine
Scientists have taken another big step forward towards developing a vaccine that's effective against the most severe forms of malaria.

New tool in fight against malaria
Modifying a class of molecules originally developed to treat the skin disease psoriasis could lead to a new malaria drug that is effective against malaria parasites resistant to currently available drugs.

Malaria expert warns of need for malaria drug to treat severe cases in US
The US each year sees more than 1,500 cases of malaria, and currently there is limited access to an intravenously administered (IV) drug needed for the more serious cases.

Monkey malaria breakthrough offers cure for relapsing malaria
A breakthrough in monkey malaria research by two University of Otago scientists could help scientists diagnose and treat a relapsing form of human malaria.

Getting to zero malaria cases in zanzibar
New research led by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Ifakara Health Institute and the Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Program suggests that a better understanding of human behavior at night -- when malaria mosquitoes are biting -- could be key to preventing lingering cases.

Widely used malaria treatment to prevent malaria in pregnant women
A global team of researchers, led by a research team at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), are calling for a review of drug-based strategies used to prevent malaria infections in pregnant women, in areas where there is widespread resistance to existing antimalarial medicines.

Protection against Malaria: A matter of balance
A balanced production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines at two years of age protects against clinical malaria in early childhood, according to a study led by ISGlobal, an institution supported by ''la Caixa'' Foundation.

The math of malaria
A new mathematical model for malaria shows how competition between parasite strains within a human host reduces the odds of drug resistance developing in a high-transmission setting.

Read More: Malaria News and Malaria Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.