Witnessing the birth of baby universes 46 times: The link between gravity and soliton

February 27, 2020

How did the universe begin? How does quantum mechanics, the study of the smallest things relate to gravity and the study of big things? These are some of the questions physicists have been working to solve ever since Einstein released his theory of relativity.

Formulas show that baby universes pops in and out of the main universe. However, we don't realize or experience this as humans. To calculate how this scales, theoretical physicists devised the so-called JT gravity, which turns the universe into a toy-like model with only one dimension of time or space. These restricted parameters allows for a model in which scientists can test their theories.

Building on the work of others, Professor Kazumi Okuyama of Shinshu University and Kazuhiro Sakai of Meiji Gakuin University set out to show how JT gravity, KdV equation and the macroscopic loop are related, thus pointing to the fact that gravity and quantum mechanics are unified. In the process, the duo succeeded in calculating the birth of baby universes 46 times which has never been done before, due to the fact the more times this is calculated the more things get increasingly complicated. Previously, Peter Zograf was able to calculate this 20 times.

The mathematical KdV equation formulated in the late 19th Century has been thought to be linked to the gravity since the 1990s. The KdV equation was first used to show how water waves behave, for example inside the canals in waterway laden Holland, solitons can be observed, or how a crest of a water wave continues unchanged for a long time when not disturbed. The macroscopic loop was also said to be related to the gravity in the 1990s.

Waves and gravity are thought to be comparable in how they manifest themselves. The holographic principle was introduced by Gerard 't Hooft as a way to understand how gravity and quantum mechanics work. When these theories are combined, one can think of the 3D physical as the gravity and the information that it is sprung from; flat like how a hologram is on a credit card. This speaks to the dimensions in space. There is no formula yet for the holographic principle.

The bulk-boundary correspondence idea is similar to this in that the bulk is the three dimensional manefestation of the boundary which is the information that gives rise to the hologram.

Professor Okuyama was able to show in this study that the JT gravity, KdV equation and macroscopic loop are intimately connected, pointing to the fact that quantum mechanics and gravity are indeed unified holographically in this model. He hopes to keep working to solve this problem in physics by devising a method to calculate the birth of baby universes not just in the "toy model" but for the existent universe.

Shinshu University

Related Quantum Mechanics Articles from Brightsurf:

Theoreticians show which quantum systems are suitable for quantum simulations
A joint research group led by Prof. Jens Eisert of Freie Universit├Ąt Berlin and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has shown a way to simulate the quantum physical properties of complex solid state systems.

A new interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests reality does not depend on the measurer
For 100 years scientists have disagreed on how to interpret quantum mechanics.

New evidence for quantum fluctuations near a quantum critical point in a superconductor
A study has found evidence for quantum fluctuations near a quantum critical point in a superconductor.

Simulating quantum 'time travel' disproves butterfly effect in quantum realm
Using a quantum computer to simulate time travel, researchers have demonstrated that, in the quantum realm, there is no 'butterfly effect.' In the research, information--qubits, or quantum bits--'time travel' into the simulated past.

Orbital engineering of quantum confinement in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well
Recently, professor Kang's group focus on the limitation of quantum confine band offset model, the hole states delocalization in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well are understood in terms of orbital intercoupling.

A Metal-like Quantum Gas: A pathbreaking platform for quantum simulation
Coherent and ultrafast laser excitation creates an exotic matter phase with spatially overlapping electronic wave-functions under nanometric control in an artificial micro-crystal of ultracold atoms.

Fluid mechanics mystery solved
An environmental engineering professor has solved a decades-old mystery regarding the behavior of fluids, a field of study with widespread medical, industrial and environmental applications.

Quantum leap: Photon discovery is a major step toward at-scale quantum technologies
A team of physicists at the University of Bristol has developed the first integrated photon source with the potential to deliver large-scale quantum photonics.

USTC realizes the first quantum-entangling-measurements-enhanced quantum orienteering
Researchers enhanced the performance of quantum orienteering with entangling measurements via photonic quantum walks.

A convex-optimization-based quantum process tomography method for reconstructing quantum channels
Researchers from SJTU have developed a convex-optimization-based quantum process tomography method for reconstructing quantum channels, and have shown the validity to seawater channels and general channels, enabling a more precise and robust estimation of the elements of the process matrix with less demands on preliminary resources.

Read More: Quantum Mechanics News and Quantum Mechanics Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.