Nav: Home

Mechanism discovered for mosaic pattern of cells in the nasal cavity

March 02, 2016

Every cell in our bodies has its proper place, but how do they get there? A research group led by Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine Ph.D. student KATSUNUMA Sayaka and Assistant Professor TOGASHI Hideru discovered the mechanism for a mosaic pattern formation of two different cell types. Their discovery has potentially broad applications as a common principle for determining pattern formation in different types of cell. The findings were published in "The Journal of Cell Biology" on February 29, 2016.

All cells in tissues adhere to each other using molecules called cadherins which interact and connect cells of the same type together. Previous studies showed that cells which express the same type of cadherin interact with each other, but cells with different types of cadherins remain separate. However, two types of cells in the olfactory epithelium (specialized tissue responsible for sense of smell), are mixed together and form a mosaic pattern despite expressing different types of cadherins.

To understand how these two different types of cells (the olfactory cells and supporting cells) are arranged in a unique mosaic pattern, the research group focused on the relationship between cadherins and nectins (another type of adhesion molecule). Nectins tend to bind heterophilically, meaning that they adhere more strongly to nectins of a different type, and have been shown to serve as recruiters for cadherin molecules. The group analyzed the mosaic pattern formation using a combination of biological and mathematical models. Their results demonstrated that interaction of different nectins between the olfactory cells and the supporting cells recruited cadherins to the junctions between cells. The accumulation of different amounts of cadherins produced different levels of adhesiveness between cell junctions, resulting in a mosaic pattern. The group also assessed what happens when different cadherins and different nectins are simultaneously expressed in cells. When they mixed the two types of cells in a culture, only one type of cell mingled. These cells created a biased mosaic pattern corresponding to the pattern in the olfactory epithelium.

"The different arrangements of cells within tissues are created by communication between cells," explains Togashi. "Our findings have demonstrated a principle that exists within organisms, and deepened our understanding of the mechanism for morphogenesis".

Kobe University

Related Cell Biology Articles:

Biochemists develop new way to control cell biology with light
Researchers at the University of Alberta have developed a new method of controlling biology at the cellular level using light.
Molecular biology: Fingerprinting cell identities
Every cell has its own individual molecular fingerprint, which is informative for its functions and regulatory states.
Cell biology: Take the mRNA train
Messenger RNAs bearing the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins are delivered to defined sites in the cell cytoplasm by molecular motors.
Designer switches of cell fate could streamline stem cell biology
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a novel strategy to reprogram cells from one type to another in a more efficient and less biased manner than previous methods.
Live cell imaging of asymmetric cell division in fertilized plant cells
Plant biologists have succeeded for the first time in visualizing how egg cells in plants divides unequally (asymmetric cell division) after being fertilized.
Vortex rings may aid cell delivery, cell-free protein production
Cornell researchers have devised a method for producing toroid-shaped particles through a process called vortex ring freezing.
Original cell type does not affect iPS cell differentiation to blood
The effectiveness of reprogramming cells into blood cells is thought to depend on the original cell type and reprogramming method.
Misleading images in cell biology
Virtually all membrane proteins have been reported to be organized as clusters on cell surfaces, when in fact many of them are just single proteins which have been counted multiple times.
Roadmap for advanced cell manufacturing shows path to cell-based therapeutics
An industry-driven consortium has developed a national roadmap designed to chart the path to large-scale manufacturing of cell-based therapeutics for use in a broad range of illnesses including cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, blood and vision disorders and organ regeneration and repair.
Copernicus Award 2016 for German-Polish Collaboration in Molecular Cell Biology
Researchers from Göttingen and Warsaw receive award from the DFG and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) / Award ceremony to take place on June 7, 2016 in Warsaw.

Related Cell Biology Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Jumpstarting Creativity
Our greatest breakthroughs and triumphs have one thing in common: creativity. But how do you ignite it? And how do you rekindle it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas on jumpstarting creativity. Guests include economist Tim Harford, producer Helen Marriage, artificial intelligence researcher Steve Engels, and behavioral scientist Marily Oppezzo.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#524 The Human Network
What does a network of humans look like and how does it work? How does information spread? How do decisions and opinions spread? What gets distorted as it moves through the network and why? This week we dig into the ins and outs of human networks with Matthew Jackson, Professor of Economics at Stanford University and author of the book "The Human Network: How Your Social Position Determines Your Power, Beliefs, and Behaviours".