New insight into enzyme evolutionMarch 03, 2016
How enzymes - the biological proteins that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur - are 'tuned' to work at a particular temperature is described in new research from groups in New Zealand and the UK, including the University of Bristol.
Professor Vic Arcus (University of Waikato) and colleagues, including Bristol's Professor Adrian Mulholland and Dr Marc van der Kamp, showed that the heat capacity of enzymes changes during a reaction as the enzymes tighten up. Exactly how much the enzymes tighten up is the critical factor in determining the temperature at which they work best. These findings could provide a route to designing better biocatalysts for use in chemical reactions in industrial processes, such as the production of drugs.
Enzymes have an optimum temperature at which they are most catalytically active. Above that temperature, they become less active. Previously, it was thought that this was because enzymes unfolded (lost their functional shape) at higher temperatures, but actually they typically become less active at higher temperatures even though they maintain their functional shape.
So what makes them less active? And what is it that causes enzymes from different organisms to have different catalytic activities at the same temperature? Enzymes from organisms that live at normal temperatures are not very active at low temperatures, while cold-adapted enzymes are active in the cold - why, when they have very similar structures?
The new research, published as a 'New Concept' in Biochemistry (and selected for the American Chemical Society (ACS) Editors' Choice), shows that a basic physical property - the heat capacity - explains and predicts the temperature dependence of enzymes. The heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by one degree. For enzymes, the heat capacity changes during the reaction and this change is 'tuned' to give the optimal temperature.
Professor Mulholland said: "Our theory - macromolecular rate theory, (MMRT) - applies to all enzymes, and so will have a critical role in predicting metabolic activity as a function of temperature.
"We also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms and even ecosystems. This means that it is important in understanding and predicting the response of biological systems to temperature changes, for example, how ecosystems will respond to temperature changes associated with climate change."
The theory also explains why enzymes are so big (the more 'difficult' the chemistry to catalyse, the bigger the enzyme). It also hints at why proteins were eventually preferred by evolution over nucleic acids as catalysts in biology: proteins offer much more ability to 'tune' dynamics and their response to chemical reactions.
'On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-catalyzed Rates' by Vickery L. Arcus, Erica J. Prentice, Joanne K. Hobbs, Adrian J. Mulholland, Marc W. Van der Kamp, Christopher R. Pudney, Emily J. Parker and Louis A. Schipper in Biochemistry
University of Bristol
Related Proteins Articles:
Scientists describe a well-defined mitochondrial proteome in baker's yeast.
Scientists from the University of Bristol have designed a new protein structure, and are using it to understand how protein structures are stabilized.
How did protein interactions arise and how have they developed?
Researchers recently confirmed it is possible to extract proteins from 80-million-year-old dinosaur bones.
Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel have developed a new method by which proteins can be transported to a new location in a cell.
Ancient proteins may offer clues on how to engineer proteins that can withstand the high temperatures required in industrial applications, according to new research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Florian Praetorius and Professor Hendrik Dietz of the Technical University of Munich have developed a new method that can be used to construct custom hybrid structures using DNA and proteins.
EPFL scientists have carried out a genomic and evolutionary study of a large and enigmatic family of human proteins, to demonstrate that it is responsible for harnessing the millions of transposable elements in the human genome.
Some organisms are able to survive in hot springs, while others can only live at mild temperatures because their proteins aren't able to withstand such extreme heat.
Small 'bubbles' frequently form on membranes of cells and are taken up into their interior.
Related Proteins Reading:
Proteins: Concepts in Biochemistry
by Paulo Almeida (Author)
Proteins: Concepts in Biochemistry teaches the biochemical concepts underlying protein structure, evolution, stability, folding, and enzyme kinetics, and explains how interactions in macromolecular structures determine protein function. Intended for a one-semester course in biochemistry or biophysical chemistry with a focus on proteins, this textbook emphasizes the logic underlying biophysical chemical principles.
Problems throughout the book encourage statistical and quantitative thinking. The text is ideal for senior undergraduates, first year graduate students, and... View Details
Proteins: Structure and Function
by David Whitford (Author)
Proteins: Structure and Function is a comprehensive introduction to the study of proteins and their importance to modern biochemistry. Each chapter addresses the structure and function of proteins with a definitive theme designed to enhance student understanding. Opening with a brief historical overview of the subject the book moves on to discuss the ‘building blocks’ of proteins and their respective chemical and physical properties. Later chapters explore experimental and computational methods of comparing proteins, methods of protein purification and protein folding and... View Details
Protein Power: The High-Protein/Low Carbohydrate Way to Lose Weight, Feel Fit, and Boost Your Health-in Just Weeks!
by Michael R. Eades (Author), Mary Dan Eades (Author)
New York Times Bestseller - An effective, medically sound diet that lets you eat bacon, eggs, steak, even cheese? It's true! Lose fat. Feel fit. Stop craving. Without counting fat grams and without giving up the foods you love. Includes recipes for healthy meals to lose weight.
Based on cutting-edge research, this revolutionary and deliciously satisfying plan has already helped thousands of patients lose weight and achieve other lifesaving health benefits, including lower cholesterol and blood pressure readings and an improvement or reversal of common... View Details
Vegetarian Times Plant-Powered Protein Cookbook: Over 200 Healthy & Delicious Whole-Food Dishes
by Editors of Vegetarian Times (Author)
Healthy, Delicious Recipes with Plant Powered Protein
Protein is the macronutrient that’s on the tip of everyone’s tongue these days, but a protein-rich diet doesn’t have to mean chowing down on giant bowls of beans or plates of egg whites—nor does it have to include meat, fish, or poultry. In this book, the Vegetarian Times editors set the protein story straight, showing you how to meet all your protein needs with delicious, satisfying, easy-to-prepare recipes that fit seamlessly into any lifestyle.... View Details
Low Protein Cookery for Phenylketonuria
by Virginia E. Schuett (Author)
Much more than a cookbook, Low Protein Cookery for Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a practical and easy-to-use guide for those who must maintain a protein-restricted diet for treatment of PKU or similar inherited diseases of protein metabolism. It contains hundreds of helpful suggestions for managing the diet. This third edition of Low Protein Cookery for PKU appears exactly twenty years after the original 1977 publication and includes the 450-plus recipes and the hints from the 1988 second edition that have been used and enjoyed by families for nearly a decade.
The... View Details
The High-Protein Vegetarian Cookbook: Hearty Dishes that Even Carnivores Will Love
by Katie Parker (Author), Kristen Smith (Author)
Satisfying vegetarian recipes from Veggie and the BeastWhere do vegetarians get their protein? From delicious plant-based foods, including beans, nuts, quinoa, raw cocoa, and even dairy. These ingredients are used to their best advantage in this new cookbook. As a vegetarian living with a meat-eating guy, the author has developed recipes for every time of day (or night) that are deliciously satisfying and high in protein. With recipes like Fresh Veggie Quinoa Salad with Lemon Tahini Dressing, Mushroom and Wild Rice Burgers, Quick and Hearty Vegetarian Chili,... View Details
The Protein Power Lifeplan
by Michael R. Eades (Author), Mary Dan Eades (Author)
Introduces a lifestyle program that includes motivational advice, recipes, health tips, and nutritional guidelines to assist in treating major health problems, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and heart disease View Details
The Bariatric Foodie Guide to Perfect Protein Shakes (Volume 1)
by Ms Nikki L Massie (Author)
Life can be stressful. Your protein shake shouldn't be! Dozens of crave-worthy protein drink recipes tips & tricks from popular weight-loss surgery blog, Bariatric Foodie! View Details
Protein Ninja: Power through Your Day with 100 Hearty Plant-Based Recipes that Pack a Protein Punch
by Terry Hope Romero (Author)
I wanted protein recipes other than that mashing a vanilla-flavored powder with almond butter and flax seeds and calling it a day. I wanted something that really made me feel as if I was cooking. And yes, even good old-fashioned baking! Adding pure, unflavored, but wholesome plant-based protein powders to recipes brings out my inner foodie alchemist. I heard the call of the protein ninja.
Whether you're vegan, vegetarian, or eat-everything-you-can-get-your-hands-on, a weeknight home chef, everyday athlete, or just a busy person looking wholesome, protein-rich snacks and... View Details
The Protein Counter 3rd Edition
by Jo-Ann Heslin M.A. R.D. CDN (Author), Karen J Nolan Ph.D. (Author)
MORE THAN 7.5 MILION COUNTER BOOKS IN PRINT FROM THE NUTRITION EXPERTS
Put the latest protein recommendations to work for you.
Every day your body must build and replace millions of cells—an impossible job without proteins. The amount you need changes with exercise, stress, weight loss, illness, injury, and pregnancy. That’s why your body is counting on you to eat the proteins it needs to maximize fitness, boost your immune system, protect you from chronic disease, help you lose weight and keep it off, and much more. The completely revised and updated Protein... View Details