# A fascinating look at Cambridge during the Victorian era

March 13, 2008The 19th century was a key period in the development of the mathematical sciences in Britain. Subjects such as rigid-body dynamics, hydrodynamics, elasticity, optics, heat, electricity and magnetism were extended and given firmer foundations; new areas of pure mathematics were explored; and major advances took place in statistics, astronomy, geology and glaciology.

The mid-19th century also brought dramatic changes to Cambridge University. Before 1850, the only pathway to an honours degree was the Mathematical Tripos - taken by all aspiring students whatever their destined careers - and the best teaching was provided by private tutors, the most renowned being the remarkable William Hopkins.

Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century by Alex DD Craik tells the story of Hopkins and the education and subsequent careers of his top "wranglers", many of whom went on to have illustrious careers as bishops, judges, politicians, scientists or educators. It draws on first-hand accounts of life at Cambridge to give the reader a glimpse inside its colleges, and it charts the evolution of the curriculum and the slow, often reluctant, reforms that led to Cambridge's dominance of British higher education. It surveys the scientific achievements of the time and considers the disproportionate contributions made by Scottish and Irish alumni in establishing a research community. Gradually, Cambridge was transformed from a near-moribund institution into a world-renowned centre for the mathematical and physical sciences.

Many famous scientists and mathematicians are profiled, among them G. Green, G.G. Stokes, J.C. Adams, W. Thomson (Lord Kelvin), A. Cayley and J.C. Maxwell, and many lesser-known figures too, including the first professors in Australia and the tutor to an Indian maharajah. In addition, and as a special highlight, Hopkins' own collection of portraits of his top students, attributed to the artist T.C. Wageman, are published here - in colour - for the first time.

Scholarly yet non-technical, this is a fascinating look at Cambridge during the Victorian era that is accessible to anyone with an interest in the history of science and mathematics; the history of education; the interaction of science and religious belief; the history of Cambridge University; and Victorian Britain generally.

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Alex DD Craik is a graduate of St Andrews and Cambridge. For many years he taught applied mathematics at St Andrews University, where he is presently an emeritus professor. His two main areas of research are fluid mechanics and the history of mathematics and its applications. Most of his current research is on the history of mathematics and mathematicians, with a focus on the late 18th and 19th centuries. Several of his publications relate to Scottish-born or Scottish-based mathematicians. He has written a monograph, "Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows" (CUP, 1985) and numerous research papers in journals such as "Historia Mathematica" and "Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London".Alex DD Craik

Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century 2008, Approx. 425 p. 78 illus., 48 in color.

Softcover EUR 39.95; $49.95; £25.00; ISBN: 978-1-84800-132-9

Springer

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