Nav: Home

Advances point the way to smaller, safer batteries

March 18, 2019

ITHACA, N.Y.- People don't ask too much from batteries: Deliver energy when it's needed and for as long as it is wanted, recharge quickly and don't burst into flames.

A rash of cell phone fires in 2016 jolted consumer confidence in lithium-ion batteries, a technology that helped usher in modern portable electronics but has been plagued by safety concerns since it was introduced in the 1980s. As interest in electric vehicles revs up, researchers and industry insiders are searching for improved rechargeable battery technology that can safely and reliably power cars, autonomous vehicles, robotics and other next-generation devices.

New Cornell research advances the design of solid-state batteries, a technology that is inherently safer and more energy-dense than today's lithium-ion batteries, which rely on flammable liquid electrolytes for fast transfer of chemical energy stored in molecular bonds to electricity. By starting with liquid electrolytes and then transforming them into solid polymers inside the electrochemical cell, the researchers take advantage of both liquid and solid properties to overcome key limitations in current battery designs.

"Imagine a glass full of ice cubes: Some of the ice will contact the glass, but there are gaps," said Qing Zhao, a postdoctoral researcher and lead author on the study, "Solid-State Polymer Electrolytes With In-Built Fast Interfacial Transport for Secondary Lithium Batteries," published March 11 in Nature Energy.

"But if you fill the glass with water and freeze it, the interfaces will be fully coated, and you establish a strong connection between the solid surface of the glass and its liquid contents," Qing said. "This same general concept in a battery facilitates high rates of ion transfer across the solid surfaces of a battery electrode to an electrolyte without needing a combustible liquid to operate."

The key insight is the introduction of special molecules capable of initiating polymerization inside the electrochemical cell, without compromising other functions of the cell. If the electrolyte is a cyclic ether, the initiator can be designed to rip open the ring, producing reactive monomer strands that bond together to create long chain-like molecules with essentially the same chemistry as the ether. This now-solid polymer retains the tight connections at the metal interfaces, much like the ice inside a glass.

Beyond their relevance for improving battery safety, solid-state electrolytes are also beneficial for enabling next-generation batteries that utilize metals, including lithium and aluminum, as anodes for achieving far more energy storage than is possible in today's state-of-the-art battery technology. In this context, the solid-state electrolyte prevents the metal from forming dendrites, a phenomenon that can short circuit a battery and lead to overheating and failure.

Despite the perceived advantages of solid-state batteries, industry attempts to produce them at a large scale have encountered setbacks. Manufacturing costs are high, and the poor interfacial properties of previous designs present significant technical hurdles. A solid-state system also circumvents the need for battery cooling by providing stability to thermal changes.

"Our findings open an entirely new pathway to create practical solid-state batteries that can be used in a range of applications," said senior author Lynden Archer, the James A. Friend Family Distinguished Professor of Engineering in the Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.

According to Archer, the new in-situ strategy for creating solid polymer electrolytes is particularly exciting because it shows promise for extending cycle life and recharging capabilities of high-energy-density rechargeable metal batteries.

"Our approach works for today's lithium ion technology by making it safer, but offers opportunity for future battery technology," Archer said.
-end-
Other authors are doctoral students Xiaotun Liu and Sanjuna Stalin, and Kasim Khan '20. The research was supported by the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences program and through facilities funding from the National Science Foundation.

Cornell University

Related Glass Articles:

Glass from a 3D printer
ETH researchers used a 3D printing process to produce complex and highly porous glass objects.
Making glass more clear
Northwestern University researchers have developed an algorithm that makes it possible to design glassy materials with dynamic properties and predict their continually changing behaviors.
Researchers use 3D printer to print glass
For the first time, researchers have successfully 3D printed chalcogenide glass, a unique material used to make optical components that operate at mid-infrared wavelengths.
New family of glass good for lenses
A new composition of germanosilicate glass created by adding zinc oxide has properties good for lens applications, according to Penn State researchers.
In-depth insights into glass corrosion
Silicate glass has many applications, including the use as a nuclear waste form to immobilize radioactive elements from spent fuel.
Laser-fabricated crystals in glass are ferroelectric
For the first time, a team of researchers from Lehigh University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lebanon Valley College and Corning Inc. has demonstrated that laser-generated crystals confined in glass retain controllable ferroelectric properties, key to creating faster, more efficient optical communication systems.
New research questions the 'Glass Cliff' and corroborates the persistent 'Glass Ceiling'
Are women more likely to be appointed to leadership positions in crisis situations when companies are struggling with declining profits?
A new path through the looking-glass
Exploring the mystery of the molecular handedness in nature, scientists have proposed a new experimental scheme to create custom-made mirror molecules for analysis.
Careful -- You are made of glass
Researcher Otger Campas and his group uncover how tissues and organs are sculpted during embryogenesis
Breaking laws, making glass
IBS researchers have designed an innovative method to study how interacting particles behave at temperatures close to absolute zero, and found a situation where the laws of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are not respected, energy is not evenly distributed, and equilibrium is not reached.
More Glass News and Glass Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

In & Out Of Love
We think of love as a mysterious, unknowable force. Something that happens to us. But what if we could control it? This hour, TED speakers on whether we can decide to fall in — and out of — love. Guests include writer Mandy Len Catron, biological anthropologist Helen Fisher, musician Dessa, One Love CEO Katie Hood, and psychologist Guy Winch.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#543 Give a Nerd a Gift
Yup, you guessed it... it's Science for the People's annual holiday episode that helps you figure out what sciency books and gifts to get that special nerd on your list. Or maybe you're looking to build up your reading list for the holiday break and a geeky Christmas sweater to wear to an upcoming party. Returning are pop-science power-readers John Dupuis and Joanne Manaster to dish on the best science books they read this past year. And Rachelle Saunders and Bethany Brookshire squee in delight over some truly delightful science-themed non-book objects for those whose bookshelves are already full. Since...
Now Playing: Radiolab

An Announcement from Radiolab