Nav: Home

States can lower risk of measles outbreak by strengthening exemption policies

March 21, 2017

AURORA, Colo. (March 21, 2017) -States with weaker non-medical exemption policies for vaccinations can reduce the likelihood of a measles outbreak 140 to 190 percent by strengthening them, a new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus shows.

Researchers said the magnitude of those outbreaks can also be cut in half by strengthening exemption policies for children.

"In the year 2000 measles was no longer being transmitted in the U.S.," said the study's lead author Melanie Whittington, PhD., a health services researcher. "Compare that to 2015 when we had over 150 cases in the first three months. Suddenly measles is an issue again despite having an effective vaccine."

Whittington and her colleagues, including the study's senior author Jonathan Campbell, PhD, associate professor of clinical pharmacy at the CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, wanted to find out why.

Using mathematical models, they simulated the magnitude, likelihood and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies.

Every state has such policies. Those with "easy" exemption policies typically only require a parent signature on a standardized form. States with "medium" exemption policies require parents to obtain a form from a health department and/or attend an educational session on vaccinations, or write a statement of objection. Finally, states with "difficult" exemption policies require parents to get a standardized form or statement of objection notarized.

The researchers, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Immunization Study, found easier non-medical vaccine exemption policies to be associated with a greater risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

The state they modeled was Colorado, which has one of the lowest vaccination rates for measles. Only 87.4 percent of children between the ages of 19-35 months are covered. And 5 percent of kindergartners report an exemption.

"We modeled an environment where the population had low vaccination coverage and then simulated measles outbreaks under different exemption policies," said Whittington. "We found that a state like Colorado is 140 to 190 percent more likely to experience an outbreak with an easy exemption policy than if it had a medium or difficult non-medical exemption policy. The outbreak size can also be reduced nearly by half with stronger policies."

While the researchers focused on measles, strengthening exemption policies could benefit other vaccine-preventable diseases, such as mumps.

"There is a tradeoff here," said Campbell, who specializes in pharmaceutical outcomes research. "It's a trade between freedom and risk. Are we willing to give up a small piece of freedom that nudges us toward vaccination in order to halve the risk of a detrimental outbreak of a preventable disease? I think Colorado should be willing to make that trade."

The researchers urged the strengthening of non-medical exemption policies as a way to increase vaccination coverage.

"We are not saying you can't have non-medical exemptions," Campbell and Whittington said. "But if we strengthen them, we can improve health and reduce the economic impact of a potential outbreak."
-end-
The study was published online this month in Academic Pediatrics.

The co-authors include Allison Kempe, MD, MPH; Amanda Dempsey, MD, PhD and Rachel Herlihy, MD, MPH.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Related Vaccination Articles:

Researchers develop microneedle patch for flu vaccination
A National Institutes of Health-funded study led by a team at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University has shown that an influenza vaccine can produce robust immune responses and be administered safely with an experimental patch of dissolving microneedles.
Rotavirus vaccination in infants and young children
Rotaviruses (RV) are the commonest cause of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide.
Industry and occupation affect flu vaccination coverage
Not surprisingly, healthcare workers are almost twice as likely to get flu vaccines as those in other occupations.
Child's vaccination data handily available via Kasvuseula service
Parents can now follow their tots' vaccinations via the Kasvuseula online service, which provides analytical data on the child's growth.
Foot-and-mouth crises to be averted with vaccination strategy
Future outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be controlled effectively and quickly with vaccinations -- saving millions of pounds and hundreds of thousands of livestock -- according to research by the University of Warwick.
HPV prevalence rates among US men, vaccination coverage
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, as well as a cause of various cancers, and a new study published online by JAMA Oncology estimates the overall prevalence of genital HPV infection in men ages 18 to 59.
Anesthetic cream best for relieving vaccination pain in infants
For babies under age one year, lidocaine cream, combined with a small amount of sugar given by mouth and infant soothing, can help relieve pain from routine vaccinations, according to a study in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Measles prevention -- how to pull the trigger for vaccination campaigns?
Routine vaccination has greatly reduced measles deaths in recent years, but very high vaccination coverage is needed to prevent disease outbreaks.
Using satellite images to better target vaccination
Vaccination campaigns can improve prevention and control of disease of outbreaks in the developing world by using satellite images to capture short-term changes in population size.
Maternal vaccination again influenza associated with protection for infants
How long does the protection from a mother's immunization against influenza during pregnancy last for infants after they are born?

Related Vaccination Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Moving Forward
When the life you've built slips out of your grasp, you're often told it's best to move on. But is that true? Instead of forgetting the past, TED speakers describe how we can move forward with it. Guests include writers Nora McInerny and Suleika Jaouad, and human rights advocate Lindy Lou Isonhood.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#527 Honey I CRISPR'd the Kids
This week we're coming to you from Awesome Con in Washington, D.C. There, host Bethany Brookshire led a panel of three amazing guests to talk about the promise and perils of CRISPR, and what happens now that CRISPR babies have (maybe?) been born. Featuring science writer Tina Saey, molecular biologist Anne Simon, and bioethicist Alan Regenberg. A Nobel Prize winner argues banning CRISPR babies won’t work Geneticists push for a 5-year global ban on gene-edited babies A CRISPR spin-off causes unintended typos in DNA News of the first gene-edited babies ignited a firestorm The researcher who created CRISPR twins defends...