Nav: Home

States can lower risk of measles outbreak by strengthening exemption policies

March 21, 2017

AURORA, Colo. (March 21, 2017) -States with weaker non-medical exemption policies for vaccinations can reduce the likelihood of a measles outbreak 140 to 190 percent by strengthening them, a new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus shows.

Researchers said the magnitude of those outbreaks can also be cut in half by strengthening exemption policies for children.

"In the year 2000 measles was no longer being transmitted in the U.S.," said the study's lead author Melanie Whittington, PhD., a health services researcher. "Compare that to 2015 when we had over 150 cases in the first three months. Suddenly measles is an issue again despite having an effective vaccine."

Whittington and her colleagues, including the study's senior author Jonathan Campbell, PhD, associate professor of clinical pharmacy at the CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, wanted to find out why.

Using mathematical models, they simulated the magnitude, likelihood and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies.

Every state has such policies. Those with "easy" exemption policies typically only require a parent signature on a standardized form. States with "medium" exemption policies require parents to obtain a form from a health department and/or attend an educational session on vaccinations, or write a statement of objection. Finally, states with "difficult" exemption policies require parents to get a standardized form or statement of objection notarized.

The researchers, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Immunization Study, found easier non-medical vaccine exemption policies to be associated with a greater risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

The state they modeled was Colorado, which has one of the lowest vaccination rates for measles. Only 87.4 percent of children between the ages of 19-35 months are covered. And 5 percent of kindergartners report an exemption.

"We modeled an environment where the population had low vaccination coverage and then simulated measles outbreaks under different exemption policies," said Whittington. "We found that a state like Colorado is 140 to 190 percent more likely to experience an outbreak with an easy exemption policy than if it had a medium or difficult non-medical exemption policy. The outbreak size can also be reduced nearly by half with stronger policies."

While the researchers focused on measles, strengthening exemption policies could benefit other vaccine-preventable diseases, such as mumps.

"There is a tradeoff here," said Campbell, who specializes in pharmaceutical outcomes research. "It's a trade between freedom and risk. Are we willing to give up a small piece of freedom that nudges us toward vaccination in order to halve the risk of a detrimental outbreak of a preventable disease? I think Colorado should be willing to make that trade."

The researchers urged the strengthening of non-medical exemption policies as a way to increase vaccination coverage.

"We are not saying you can't have non-medical exemptions," Campbell and Whittington said. "But if we strengthen them, we can improve health and reduce the economic impact of a potential outbreak."
-end-
The study was published online this month in Academic Pediatrics.

The co-authors include Allison Kempe, MD, MPH; Amanda Dempsey, MD, PhD and Rachel Herlihy, MD, MPH.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Related Vaccination Articles:

Religion associated with HPV vaccination rate for college women
A survey of female college students finds 25% had not been vaccinated for HPV and religion may be a contributing factor.
Measles vaccination: 'All for one and one for all'
A commentary by researchers addresses the specter of clinical, ethical, public health and legal concerns that have been raised because of the recent measles outbreaks in New York.
New single vaccination approach to killer diseases
Scientists from the University of Adelaide's Research Centre for Infectious Diseases have developed a single vaccination approach to simultaneously combat influenza and pneumococcal infections, the world's most deadly respiratory diseases.
Vaccination may help protect bats from deadly disease
A new study shows that vaccination may reduce the impact of white-nose syndrome in bats, marking a milestone in the international fight against one of the most destructive wildlife diseases in modern times.
Parents reassured febrile seizures following vaccination not dangerous
New University of Sydney research finds that febrile seizures after vaccination are rare, not serious and are no different to febrile seizures due to other causes such as from a virus.
Is maternal vaccination safe during breastfeeding?
In light of the continuing anti-vaccination movement, a provocative new article provides a comprehensive overview of the potential risks of vaccinating breastfeeding women.
Flu vaccination keeps COPD patients out of the hospital
A new study published in the January issue of CHEST® establishes that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face heightened risks of death, critical illness, and hospitalization if they develop the flu and demonstrates the beneficial effects of influenza vaccination.
Addressing expected challenges after resumption of HPV vaccination
Researchers at Osaka University present measures for reducing a risk of uterine cervical cancer that increased by the suspension of the Japanese government recommendation for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and for promoting HPV vaccination after its resumption
Research explains public resistance to vaccination
A new study explains why it is so hard to increase public vaccination levels even when evidence indicates that vaccines are safe and beneficial.
Childhood vaccination exemptions rise in parts of the US
Non-medical exemptions from childhood vaccinations are rising in some areas of the United States, creating a risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, argue Peter Hotez, Melissa Nolan, Jackie Nolan, and Ashish Damania in a Policy Forum article in PLOS Medicine.
More Vaccination News and Vaccination Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Rethinking Anger
Anger is universal and complex: it can be quiet, festering, justified, vengeful, and destructive. This hour, TED speakers explore the many sides of anger, why we need it, and who's allowed to feel it. Guests include psychologists Ryan Martin and Russell Kolts, writer Soraya Chemaly, former talk radio host Lisa Fritsch, and business professor Dan Moshavi.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.