Visualizing nuclear radiationMarch 22, 2017
Kyoto, Japan -- Extraordinary decontamination efforts are underway in areas affected by the 2011 nuclear accidents in Japan. The creation of total radioactivity maps is essential for thorough cleanup, but the most common methods, according to Kyoto University's Toru Tanimori, do not 'see' enough ground-level radiation.
"The best methods we have currently are labor intensive, and to measure surface radiation accurately," he says, "complex analysis is needed."
In their latest work published in Scientific Reports, Tanimori and his group explain how gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy is more versatile and robust, resulting in a clearer image.
"We constructed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) to detect nuclear gamma rays quantitatively. Typically this is used to study radiation from space, but we have shown that it can also measure contamination, such as at Fukushima."
The imaging revealed what Tanimori calls "micro hot spots" around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, even in regions that had already been considered decontaminated. In fact, the cleaning in some regions appeared to be far less than what could be measured by other means.
Current methods for measuring gamma rays do not reliably pinpoint the source of the radiation. According to Tanimori, "radiation sources including distant galaxies can disrupt the measurements."
The key to creating a clear image is taking a color image including the direction and energy of all gamma rays emitted in the vicinity.
"Quantitative imaging produces a surface radioactivity distribution that can be converted to show dosage on the ground," says Tanimori. "The ETCC makes true images of the gamma rays based on proper geometrical optics."
This distribution can then be used to relatively easily measure ground dosage levels, showing that most gamma rays scatter and spread in the air, putting decontamination efforts at risk.
"Our ETCC will make it easier to respond to nuclear emergencies," continues Tanimori. "Using it, we can detect where and how radiation is being released. This will not only help decontamination, but also the eventual dismantling of nuclear reactors."
Kyoto University is one of Japan and Asia's premier research institutions, founded in 1897 and responsible for producing numerous Nobel laureates and winners of other prestigious international prizes. A broad curriculum across the arts and sciences at both undergraduate and graduate levels is complemented by numerous research centers, as well as facilities and offices around Japan and the world. For more information please see: http://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en
Related Radiation Articles:
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is simulating space radiation on Earth following upgrades to the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Extraordinary decontamination efforts are underway in areas affected by the 2011 nuclear accidents in Japan.
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have found a new way to measure radiation damage in materials, quickly, cheaply and continuously, using transient grating spectroscopy.
Researchers at Japan's Tohoku University are investigating novel ways by which electrons are knocked out of matter.
When it comes to putting technology in space, size and mass are prime considerations.
Zap a tumor with radiation to trigger expression of a molecule, then attack that molecule with a drug-loaded nanoparticle.
A microchip that filters out unwanted radiation with the help of graphene has been developed by scientists from the EPFL and tested by researchers of the University of Geneva (UNIGE).
This year marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
The widespread belief that radiation from X rays, CT scans and other medical imaging can cause cancer is based on an unproven, decades-old theoretical model, according to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Oncology.
During pregnancy, approximately 5 to 8 percent of women sustain traumatic injuries, including fractures and muscle tears.
Related Radiation Reading:
Radiation: What It Is, What You Need to Know
by Robert Peter Gale (Author), Eric Lax (Author)
The universe was born in a nuclear explosion. We live on a radioactive planet. Without radiation there would be not life. And yet radiation remains deeply misunderstood and often mistakenly feared. Now Dr. Robert Peter Gale—one of the world’s leading experts on the subject—and Eric Lax set the record straight about subjects like uranium, plutonium, iodine-131, X-Rays, CT scans, and the radiation of food, while lucidly debunking myths about radioactivity. In this fascinating book, the authors explore the science, benefits, and risks of radiation exposure, drawing on the most... View Details
Radiation Nation: Fallout of Modern Technology - Your Complete Guide to EMF Protection & Safety: The Proven Health Risks of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMF) & What to Do Protect Yourself & Family
by Daniel T. DeBaun (Author), Ryan DeBaun (Author), Dave Asprey (Foreword)
An Invisible Danger on the Rise
You eat organic and non-GMO food. You only drink purified water. You take care of yourself and your family's health. But could there be a silent, invisible danger causing potential harm to you and your loved ones? There could. And it's called electromagnetic frequency (EMF) radiation and it's one of fastest growing health issues facing our society. EMF radiation produced by modern technology such as cell phones, tablets, laptops, Wi-Fi, and smart meters is an emerging health threat, and we are all guinea pigs in a giant experiment with many unknown... View Details
Strange Glow: The Story of Radiation
by Timothy J. Jorgensen (Author)
More than ever before, radiation is a part of our modern daily lives. We own radiation-emitting phones, regularly get diagnostic x-rays, such as mammograms, and submit to full-body security scans at airports. We worry and debate about the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the safety of nuclear power plants. But how much do we really know about radiation? And what are its actual dangers? An accessible blend of narrative history and science, Strange Glow describes mankind's extraordinary, thorny relationship with radiation, including the hard-won lessons of how radiation helps and... View Details
Mosby’s Radiation Therapy Study Guide and Exam Review (Print w/Access Code), 1e
by Leia Levy MAdEd(Masters in Adult Education) RT(T) (Author)
Reinforce your understanding of radiation therapy and prepare for the Registry exam! Mosby's Radiation Therapy Study Guide and Exam Review is both a study companion for Principles and Practice of Radiation Therapy, by Charles Washington and Dennis Leaver, and a superior review for the certification exam offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technology (ARRT). An easy-to-read format simplifies study by presenting information in concise bullets and tables. Over 1,000 review questions are included in the book, with an additional 1,000 questions available online on... View Details
U.S. Armed Forces Nuclear, Biological And Chemical Survival Manual
by Dick Couch (Author)
Military experts teach you how to survive an attack on American soil, from North Korean missiles to weaponized smallpoxNorth Korean nukes. Dirty bombs in train stations. Chemical warfare. Americans have more reasons than ever to be afraid. If a nuclear missile strikes, will you know what to do? If a nerve agent is released in your subway system or office building, will you be safe? The U.S. Armed Forces Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Survival Manual gives you the information you need to survive a terrorist attack. It contains the best practices of all the United... View Details
Secrets of the Radiation Health and Safety Exam Study Guide: DANB Test Review for the Radiation Health and Safety Exam (Mometrix Test Preparation)
by DANB Exam Secrets Test Prep Team (Author)
This Radiation Health and Safety study guide includes practice test questions. Our Radiation Health and Safety study guide contains easy-to-read essential summaries that highlight the key areas of the Radiation Health and Safety test. Mometrix's Radiation Health and Safety test study guide reviews the most important components of the Radiation Health and Safety exam.
The Radiation Health and Safety Exam is extremely challenging, and thorough test preparation is essential for success. Radiation Health and Safety Exam Secrets Study Guide is the ideal prep solution... View Details
Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography, 7e
by Mary Alice Statkiewicz Sherer AS RT(R) FASRT (Author), Paula J. Visconti PhD DABR (Author), E. Russell Ritenour PhD DABR FAAPM FACR (Author), Kelli Haynes MSRS RT(R) (Author)
A full-color resource, Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography, 7th Edition makes it easy to understand both basic and complex concepts in radiation protection, biology, and physics. Concise coverage promotes the safe use of ionizing radiation in all imaging modalities, including the effects of radiation on humans at the cellular and systemic levels, regulatory and advisory limits for human exposure to radiation, and the implementation of radiation safety practices for patients and personnel. This edition includes NEW content on the impact of radiation levels during the nuclear power... View Details
Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology
by Eric Hansen (Editor), Mack Roach III (Editor)
The Third Edition of Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology updates and revises the previous successful editions and serves as a key reference for radiation oncology professionals. Organized by body site, concise clinical chapters provide easy access to critical information. Important "pearls" of epidemiology, anatomy, pathology, and clinical presentation are highlighted. The key elements of the work-up are listed, followed by staging and/or risk classification systems. Treatment recommendations are discussed based on stage, histology, and/or risk classification. Brief... View Details
Comprehensive Review Guide For The Radiation Therapy Examination
by Laura M Nappi (Author), Amy Stellabotte (Editor)
This is the ultimate tool to use to study for the Radiation Therapy Registry. It outlines and explains important components for the test. Provides useful math equations. Two mock exams with a total of 400 example test questions. Former students who have used this guide explained it as: “Thorough, concise, and organized.” “The perfect registry prep!” “It was my go-to study tool and played a big role in my exam success.” “The best source I can use for the registry.” View Details
Radiation Detection and Measurement
by Glenn F. Knoll (Author)
This is the resource that engineers turn to in the study of radiation detection. The fourth edition takes into account the technical developments that continue to enhance the instruments and techniques available for the detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation. New coverage is presented on ROC curves, micropattern gas detectors, new sensors for scintillation light, and the excess noise factor. Revised discussions are also included on TLDs and cryogenic spectrometers, radiation backgrounds, and the VME standard. Engineers will gain a strong understanding of the field with this updated... View Details