Nav: Home

NIH scientists advance understanding of herpesvirus infection

April 12, 2017

WHAT:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections last a lifetime. Once a person has been infected, the virus can remain dormant (latent) for years before periodically reactivating to cause recurrent disease. This poorly understood cycle has frustrated scientists for years. Now, National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have identified a set of protein complexes that are recruited to viral genes and stimulate both initial infection and reactivation from latency. Environmental stresses known to regulate these proteins also induce reactivation.

Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that one-half billion people are infected with HSV-2 while two-thirds of the population are infected with HSV-1. These viruses cause human diseases ranging from oral cold sores to genital lesions to serious eye conditions that can lead to blindness. In infants, HSV can cause neurological and developmental problems. People infected with HSV also have an enhanced risk of acquiring or transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Scientists at NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases previously made progress toward understanding the role of cellular protein HCF-1 in initiating HSV infection and reactivation. HCF-1 and associated proteins are recruited to the viral genome to enable the virus to replicate and spread. This previous work identified targets for the development of therapeutics to suppress infection and reactivation.

Their latest work, with collaborators from Princeton University, identifies new HCF-1 protein complexes that play additional roles in initiating viral infection and reactivation. The scientists found they could reactivate latent HSV in a mouse model using compounds that turn on components of these HCF-1 protein complexes. Interestingly, some of these HCF-1-associated proteins also are involved in HIV reactivation from latency.

The researchers are continuing to investigate the protein complexes involved in promoting HSV gene expression, infection, and reactivation from latency. Identifying these complexes and understanding the mechanisms by which they function can potentially reveal additional targets for the development of new therapeutics.
-end-
ARTICLE:

R Alfonso-Dunn et al. Transcriptional elongation of HSV Immediate Early genes by the Super Elongation Complex drives lytic infection and reactivation from latency. Cell Host & Microbe DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.03.007 (2017).

RELATED WORK:

Y Liang et al. Inhibition of the histone demethylase LSD1 blocks alpha-herpesvirus lytic replication and reactivation from latency. Nature Medicine DOI: 10.1038/nm.2051 (2009).

Y Liang et al. Targeting the JMJD2 histone demethylases to epigenetically control herpesvirus infection and reactivation from latency. Science Translational Medicine DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005145 (2013).

J Hill et al. Inhibition of LSD1 reduces herpesvirus infection, shedding, and recurrence by promoting epigenetic suppression of viral genomes. Science Translational Medicine DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3010643 (2014).

WHO:

Thomas M. Kristie, Ph.D., Chief of the Molecular Genetics Section of NIAID's Laboratory of Viral Diseases, is available to comment on this study.

CONTACT:

To schedule interviews, please contact Ken Pekoc, (301) 402-1663, kpekoc@niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID conducts and supports research--at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide--to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov/.NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Related Proteins Articles:

Designer proteins
David Baker, Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Washington to speak at the AAAS 2020 session, 'Synthetic Biology: Digital Design of Living Systems.' Prof.
Gone fishin' -- for proteins
Casting lines into human cells to snag proteins, a team of Montreal researchers has solved a 20-year-old mystery of cell biology.
Coupled proteins
Researchers from Heidelberg University and Sendai University in Japan used new biotechnological methods to study how human cells react to and further process external signals.
Understanding the power of honey through its proteins
Honey is a culinary staple that can be found in kitchens around the world.
How proteins become embedded in a cell membrane
Many proteins with important biological functions are embedded in a biomembrane in the cells of humans and other living organisms.
Finding the proteins that unpack DNA
A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins called 'nuclesome displacing factors' that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions.
A brewer's tale of proteins and beer
The transformation of barley grains into beer is an old story, typically starring water, yeast and hops.
New tool for the crystallization of proteins
ETH researchers have developed a new method of crystallizing large membrane proteins in order to determine their structure.
New interaction mechanism of proteins discovered
UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves.
When proteins shake hands
Protein nanofibres often have outstanding properties such as a high stability, biodegradability, or antibacterial effect.
More Proteins News and Proteins Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Uncharted
There's so much we've yet to explore–from outer space to the deep ocean to our own brains. This hour, Manoush goes on a journey through those uncharted places, led by TED Science Curator David Biello.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#556 The Power of Friendship
It's 2020 and times are tough. Maybe some of us are learning about social distancing the hard way. Maybe we just are all a little anxious. No matter what, we could probably use a friend. But what is a friend, exactly? And why do we need them so much? This week host Bethany Brookshire speaks with Lydia Denworth, author of the new book "Friendship: The Evolution, Biology, and Extraordinary Power of Life's Fundamental Bond". This episode is hosted by Bethany Brookshire, science writer from Science News.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dispatch 2: Every Day is Ignaz Semmelweis Day
It began with a tweet: "EVERY DAY IS IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS DAY." Carl Zimmer – tweet author, acclaimed science writer and friend of the show – tells the story of a mysterious, deadly illness that struck 19th century Vienna, and the ill-fated hero who uncovered its cure ... and gave us our best weapon (so far) against the current global pandemic. This episode was reported and produced with help from Bethel Habte and Latif Nasser. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.