Flaxseed-like particles can now grow bone, cartilage tissues for humansApril 13, 2018
Human stem cells have shown potential in medicine as they can transform into various specialized cell types such as bone and cartilage cells. The current approach to obtain such specialized cells is to subject stem cells to specialized instructive protein molecules known as growth factors. However, use of growth factors in the human body can generate harmful effects including unwanted tissue growth, such as a tumor.
Researchers at Texas A&M University have explored a new class of clay nanoparticles that can direct stem cells to become bone or cartilage cells.
Dr. Akhilesh Gaharwar, an assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, and his students have demonstrated that a specific type of two-dimensional (2-D) nanoparticles, also known as nanosilicates, can grow bone and cartilage tissue from stem cells in the absence of growth factors. These nanoparticles are similar to flaxseed in shape, but 10 billion times smaller in size. Their work, "Widespread changes in transcriptome profile of human mesenchymal stem cells induced by two-dimensional nanosilicates," has been published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.
Two-dimensional nanomaterials have gained increasing popularity over a variety of fields, such as energy, optics and regenerative engineering, due to their extremely small size and unique shape. These nanoparticles consist of highly organized atomic layers made from minerals. The minerals are abundantly present within the human body and help in some vital functions.
To understand how these nanoparticles interact with stem cells, we utilized a next-generation sequencing technique called RNA-seq," said Irtisha Singh, a computational biologist from Weill Cornell Medicine at Cornell University and the corresponding author. "RNA-seq takes a snapshot of gene activity of the cell at any given moment. This is similar to taking a high-resolution photo during the Super Bowl and identifying the reaction of every fan during the touchdown."
RNA-seq uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment. For example, cell-nanoparticle interactions can result in significant change in cellular behavior that can be observed by using this technique.
"This technique is very sensitive to investigate the interaction of a wide variety of nanomaterials with cells," said Jake Carrow, a doctoral candidate in Gaharwar's lab and co-first author of the study. "With this combination of nanotechnology and computational biology, we can better understand how a material's chemistry, shape and size can contribute to cell functions."
From this study, nanosilicates demonstrated some very interesting capabilities when applied to adult human stem cells. These cells presented signaling typically observed during regeneration of bone and cartilage. This indicates a great deal of potential for these nanoparticles as a possible therapy against osteoarthritis among other orthopedic injuries. This cellular response is believed to originate from the unique physical and chemical composition of the nanoparticles. This premise of mineral-based particles affecting cell behavior has opened the doors to the development of new class of therapies.
"The ability to customize a therapy to a specific tissue, simply by changing the mineral content within the nanoparticle, presents a great potential within the field of regenerative engineering," said Lauren Cross, also co-first author on the publication. "We believe this new field of 'mineralomics' can provide a viable alternative compared to the current treatments existing today."
The Gaharwar Lab targets cell-biomaterial interactions across multiple biological scales. His group is specifically interested in the repair and regeneration of biological tissues through the use of nanoengineered biomaterials. See more details at "Inspired Nanomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory."
Texas A&M University
Related Stem Cells Articles:
Researchers have identified a protein that must be present in order for mammary stem cells to perform their normal functions.
Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have, for the first time, generated blood-forming stem cells in the lab using pluripotent stem cells, which can make virtually every cell type in the body.
Researchers have developed a new approach for growing and studying cells they hope one day will lead to curing lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis through 'personalized medicine.'
Generating mature and viable heart muscle cells from human or other animal stem cells has proven difficult for biologists.
DNA mutations in bone cells that support blood development can drive leukemia formation in nearby blood stem cells.
With age, the chromosomes of our cardiac stem cells compress as they move into a state of safe, semiretirement.
A team of researchers from the Medical University of South Carolina and elsewhere has found a better way to purify liver cells made from induced pluripotent stem cells.
International stem cell scientists, co-led in Canada by Dr. John Dick and in the Netherlands by Dr.
Signaling a potential new approach to treating diabetes, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
In a new Cell Reports paper, a team led by John P.
Related Stem Cells Reading:
Stem Cell Therapy: A Rising Tide: How Stem Cells Are Disrupting Medicine and Transforming Lives
by Neil H Riordan (Author)
Stem cells are the repair cells of your body. When there aren’t enough of them, or they aren’t working properly, chronic diseases can manifest and persist. From industry leaders, sport stars, and Hollywood icons to thousands of everyday, ordinary people, stem cell therapy has helped when standard medicine failed. Many of them had lost hope. These are their stories.
Neil H Riordan, author of MSC: Clinical Evidence Leading Medicine’s Next Frontier, the definitive textbook on clinical stem cell therapy, brings you an easy-to-read book about how and why stem cells work,... View Details
Stem Cells: Promise and Reality
by Lygia V Pereira (Author)
Stem Cells: Promises and Reality will tell you everything you have always wanted to know about stem cells, but could not understand the field from elsewhere. Stem cells are the great therapeutic promise of the century, and this evolving field of research and medicine brings with it many legal, ethical and psychological issues that must be discussed by society as a whole. Written so as to be accessible to general readers as well as specialists, this book explains what stem cells are, and the different aspects of stem cell research and applications. The book will enable the reader to understand... View Details
Stem Cells: An Insider's Guide
by Paul Knoepfler (Author)
Stem Cells: An Insider's Guide is an exciting new book that takes readers inside the world of stem cells guided by international stem cell expert, Dr. Paul Knoepfler. Stem cells are catalyzing a revolution in medicine. The book also tackles the exciting and hotly debated area of stem cell treatments that are capturing the public's imagination. In the future they may also transform how we age and reproduce. However, there are serious risks and ethical challenges, too. The author's goal with this insider's guide is to give readers the information needed to distinguish between the... View Details
Stem Cell Revolution: Discover 26 Disruptive Technological Advances to Stem Cell Activation
by Joseph Christiano (Author)
Addressing chronic back pain, diabetes, joint replacements, osteoarthritis, neurological issues, and more, Joseph “Dr. Joe” Christiano reveals
how this cutting-edge therapy can rapidly replace damaged cells in the body with no side effects or allergic reactions.
If you have been disappointed by ineffective treatments, the answer to improving your health may be in your stem cells. Dr. Joe explains
how adult stem cell therapy and activators are two of the new technologies in regenerative medicine that will be game changers in medical history.
... View Details
Stem Cells For Dummies
by Lawrence S.B. Goldstein (Author), Meg Schneider (Author)
The first authoritative yet accessible guide to this controversial topic
Stem Cell Research For Dummies offers a balanced, plain-English look at this politically charged topic, cutting away the hype and presenting the facts clearly for you, free from debate. It explains what stem cells are and what they do, the legalities of harvesting them and using them in research, the latest research findings from the U.S. and abroad, and the prospects for medical stem cell therapies in the short and long term.Explains the differences between adult stem cells and embryonic/umbilical... View Details
The Stem Cell Revolution
by Mark Berman MD (Author), Elliot Lander MD (Contributor)
The book describes the journey into the growing arena of clinical stem cell therapy by highlighting not only the road that brought a team of physicians together but also real stories from a number of their patients that were given their health back through the magic of stem cell therapy. Your fat is loaded with stem cells that can be used now to treat and reverse a large number of inflammatory and degenerative conditions. Most people have no idea that these magical cells actually exist right within our bodies. They think that they must wait until Big Pharma or a university PhD manufactures... View Details
Stem Cells Are Everywhere
by Irv Weissman MD (Author)
An engaging introduction to stem cells for young scientists
How do you heal when you cut your skin or break a bone? How does your body keep making new blood or brain cells, or even second teeth? How does a plant keep growing larger? The answers lie in stem cells, which are found in every growing plant and animal. Keeping the subject simple enough for young readers, a pioneer of stem cell research explains cells, tissues, normal growth, what can go wrong, and how to fix it. View Details
A Buyer's Guide to Stem Cell Therapies: Safely Choose the Right Regenerative Treatment for You
The current array of "stem cell" therapies has been called the new wild west of medicine. Between fraudulent advertising and confusing science, it's no wonder that even doctors are unsure of what to think about stem cell treatments. This book aims to educate lay people who may be interested in stem cell or other regenerative treatments as to what options are currently available, both at home and abroad, and what science exists to support their use. View Details
Stem Cells: A Short Course
by Rob Burgess (Author)
Stem Cells: A Short Course is a comprehensive text for students delving into the rapidly evolving discipline of stem cell research. Comprised of eight chapters, the text addresses all of the major facets and disciplines related to stem cell biology and research. A brief history of stem cell research serves as an introduction, followed by coverage of stem cell fundamentals; chapters then explore embryonic and fetal amniotic stem cells, adult stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and cancer stem cells. The book concludes with chapters on stem cell applications, including the role of stem... View Details
Stem Cells: A Very Short Introduction
by Jonathan Slack (Author)
Embryonic stem cells have been hot-button topics in recent years, generating intense public interest as well as much confusion and misinformation. In this Very Short Introduction, leading authority Jonathan Slack offers a clear and informative overview of stem cells--what they are, what scientists do with them, what stem cell therapies are available today, and how they might be used in the future. Slack explains the difference between embryonic stem cells, which exist only in laboratory cultures, and tissue-specific stem cells, which exist in our bodies, and he discusses how... View Details