Nav: Home

A new system for color vision

April 14, 2016

The swirling skies of Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night illustrate a mystery that has eluded biologists for more than a century--why do we perceive the color blue in the dimly lit night sky? A newly discovered mechanism of color vision in mice might help answer this question, Caltech researchers say.

The work, which was done in the laboratory of Markus Meister, Anne P. and Benjamin F. Biaggini Professor of Biological Sciences, will be published on April 14 in the print edition of the journal Nature.

In humans, vision is enabled by two types of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. When these photoreceptors detect light, they send a signal to specialized neurons in the retina called retinal ganglion cells, or RGCs, which then transmit visual information to the brain by firing electrical pulses along the optic nerve.

A standard biology textbook would likely explain that vision in dim light is enabled by rods--sensitive light detectors that are only capable of producing black and white vision. Color vision, on the other hand, is enabled by cones, which are active in bright light. Humans have three types of cones, and each cone contains a different light-sensitive chemical, or pigment, that reacts to different colors, or wavelengths, of light. We have red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones, and the brain perceives color by comparing the different signals it receives from nearby cones of each type.

To explore whether or not there were other modes of color vision, Meister and his team studied another mammal: the mouse. Previous behavioral studies indicated that mice are indeed capable of some form of color vision. As in humans, that vision is dependent on light signals picked up by cones. Mice have two types of cones--one that is sensitive to medium-wavelength green light and one that is sensitive to short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV).

"The odd thing about the mouse is that these two kinds of cones are actually located in different parts of the retina," Meister says. "Mice look at the upper part of the visual field with their UV cones and the lower part with their green cones. We wanted to know how a mouse perceives color when any given part of the image is analyzed with only one cone or the other cone--meaning the brain can't compare the two cone signals to determine a color."

The researchers discovered that a certain type of neuron in the mouse retina, called a JAMB retinal ganglion cell (J-RGC), was critical. These J-RGCs can signal color to the brain because they fire faster in response to green light and stop firing in response to ultraviolet light. Curiously, the J-RGCs were turned on by green light even in the upper part of the visual field, which contained no green cones.

Through additional experiments, Meister and his team discovered how the J-RGC compares signals from the ultraviolet cones to signals from rods, which are also sensitive in the green part of the spectrum. This revealed, for the first time, an essential antagonistic relationship between the rods and the cones of the retina. Rods excite a neuron called a horizontal cell, which then inhibits the ultraviolet cones.

Meister and his colleague, first author Maximilian Joesch from Harvard University, wanted to determine how this color vision system would be helpful to a mouse in its natural environment. To find out, they fitted a camera with filters that would replicate the wavelengths detected by the mouse rods and cones and used it to take images of plants and materials that a mouse might encounter in nature.

Their photographic scavenger hunt yielded two materials--seeds and mouse urine--that were much more visible through the mouse's green and ultraviolet system than through human color vision. The researchers speculate that because mice need seeds for sustenance and use urine for social communication--via "urine posts," a form of territorial marking--they might use this mechanism to find food and spot neighbors.

Meister says there is reason to believe that this same pathway--from rods to horizontal cells to cones--is responsible for the human perception of the color blue in dim light. In the human retina, the horizontal cell preferentially inhibits the red and green cones, but not the blue cones.

"In really dim light, our cones don't receive enough photons to work, but they continue to emit a low-level baseline signal to the rest of the retina that is independent of light," he explains. "The rods are active, however, and through the horizontal cell they inhibit both the red and green cones. Because this baseline signal from the red and green cones is suppressed, it looks like the blue cones are more active. To the rest of the retina, it seems like everything in the field of vision is blue."

So, perhaps Van Gogh's color choice for the night sky was a biological decision as well as an artistic one. "Color has intrigued scientists, artists, and poets throughout human civilization. Our paper adds to the understanding of how this quality of the world is perceived," Meister says.
-end-
Meister's work was published in a paper titled "A neuronal circuit for color vision based on rod-cone opponency." Funding for the work was provided by the National Institutes of Health and The International Human Frontier Science Program Organization.

California Institute of Technology

Related Brain Articles:

Transplanting human nerve cells into a mouse brain reveals how they wire into brain circuits
A team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Vincent Bonin (VIB-KU Leuven, Université libre de Bruxelles and NERF) showed how human nerve cells can develop at their own pace, and form highly precise connections with the surrounding mouse brain cells.
Brain scans reveal how the human brain compensates when one hemisphere is removed
Researchers studying six adults who had one of their brain hemispheres removed during childhood to reduce epileptic seizures found that the remaining half of the brain formed unusually strong connections between different functional brain networks, which potentially help the body to function as if the brain were intact.
Alcohol byproduct contributes to brain chemistry changes in specific brain regions
Study of mouse models provides clear implications for new targets to treat alcohol use disorder and fetal alcohol syndrome.
Scientists predict the areas of the brain to stimulate transitions between different brain states
Using a computer model of the brain, Gustavo Deco, director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, and Josephine Cruzat, a member of his team, together with a group of international collaborators, have developed an innovative method published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Sept.
BRAIN Initiative tool may transform how scientists study brain structure and function
Researchers have developed a high-tech support system that can keep a large mammalian brain from rapidly decomposing in the hours after death, enabling study of certain molecular and cellular functions.
Wiring diagram of the brain provides a clearer picture of brain scan data
In a study published today in the journal BRAIN, neuroscientists led by Michael D.
Blue Brain Project releases first-ever digital 3D brain cell atlas
The Blue Brain Cell Atlas is like ''going from hand-drawn maps to Google Earth'' -- providing previously unavailable information on major cell types, numbers and positions in all 737 brain regions.
Landmark study reveals no benefit to costly and risky brain cooling after brain injury
A landmark study, led by Monash University researchers, has definitively found that the practice of cooling the body and brain in patients who have recently received a severe traumatic brain injury, has no impact on the patient's long-term outcome.
Brain cells called astrocytes have unexpected role in brain 'plasticity'
Researchers from the Salk Institute have shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known.
Largest brain study of 62,454 scans identifies drivers of brain aging
In the largest known brain imaging study, scientists from Amen Clinics (Costa Mesa, CA), Google, John's Hopkins University, University of California, Los Angeles and the University of California, San Francisco evaluated 62,454 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scans of more than 30,000 individuals from 9 months old to 105 years of age to investigate factors that accelerate brain aging.
More Brain News and Brain Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

In & Out Of Love
We think of love as a mysterious, unknowable force. Something that happens to us. But what if we could control it? This hour, TED speakers on whether we can decide to fall in — and out of — love. Guests include writer Mandy Len Catron, biological anthropologist Helen Fisher, musician Dessa, One Love CEO Katie Hood, and psychologist Guy Winch.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#543 Give a Nerd a Gift
Yup, you guessed it... it's Science for the People's annual holiday episode that helps you figure out what sciency books and gifts to get that special nerd on your list. Or maybe you're looking to build up your reading list for the holiday break and a geeky Christmas sweater to wear to an upcoming party. Returning are pop-science power-readers John Dupuis and Joanne Manaster to dish on the best science books they read this past year. And Rachelle Saunders and Bethany Brookshire squee in delight over some truly delightful science-themed non-book objects for those whose bookshelves are already full. Since...
Now Playing: Radiolab

An Announcement from Radiolab