Nav: Home

Light can improve perovskite solar cell performance

April 26, 2017

Publishing in Nature, EPFL scientists show how light affects perovskite film formation in solar cells, which is a critical factor in using them for cost-effective and energy-efficient photovoltaics.

Perovskites are materials of immense interest in solar energy technology lately, as they promise to bring down the cost of solar cells to very low levels. Their efficiency heavily depends on our ability to control their deposition into films, but the factors that influence the synthesis of perovskites are not well understood. EPFL scientists have now shown that, in the two most common methods used today, light can greatly accelerate the formation of perovskite films and control the morphology of their crystals, thus influencing the efficiency of the resulting solar cell. The breakthrough study is published in Nature.

The research was carried out by the lab of Michael Grätzel at EPFL. Grätzel is world-renowned for inventing the first dye-sensitized solar cells (Grätzel cells) that revolutionized solar-energy science.

In this paper, PhD student Amita Ummadisingu and her colleagues at Grätzel's lab used confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine how direct light affects the crystal formation when depositing perovskites in layers, as is usually done to build a solar cell. The goal is to ensure homogeneity across the perovskite film, as this is linked to superior photovoltaic performance.

So far, efforts have been focused on improving perovskite solar-cell efficiency by optimizing their architecture and the fabrication processes. But fundamental aspects of perovskite formation, such as the mechanism or the factors controlling the reaction are poorly understood, which results in batch-to-batch inconsistencies in performance.

However, understanding the light effect can help reproducibility and scaling-up of perovskite photovoltaics to commercial production. Because of this, the EPFL scientists studied the effect of light on the two most common methods used today for perovskite film deposition.

The first method is called "sequential deposition", and it involves depositing lead iodide onto a titanium dioxide scaffold, and then dipping them together in a methylammonium iodide solution to make the final methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. The second approach is the "anti-solvent method". Here, a perovskite precursor solution is coated uniformly onto a spinning flat base to create a thin layer. An anti-solvent is then dripped on it and, finally, the whole sample is heated to form the perovskite.

Using both the microscopy techniques during the sequential deposition method, the scientists found that when light is present, it significantly accelerates the overall formation of the perovskite. The effect is enhanced when light intensity is increased to solar levels.

The morphological differences in the film are not the result of heating from the light; rather they are the product of a quantum effect: the lead iodide film crystallizes as the first step in perovskite formation, and it forms surface traps. These traps capture photo-generated holes, which lowers the surface tension. As a result, more lead iodide crystals grow in the film, ultimately producing more perovskite crystals.

On the other hand, the researchers found that the anti-solvent method actually benefits more from the absence of light, and it gives best results in the dark.

The study shows that controlling the light present during fabrication can help achieve the best performance from perovskite solar cells. "Surprisingly and strikingly we find that light strongly affects the rate of formation and the morphology of perovskites in conventional methods used where no light effects have been remarked before," says Michael Grätzel.

"Light is a major factor in the main deposition methods and for many perovskite compositions," adds Amita Ummadisingu. "So awareness and control of the light effect is crucial when fabricating state-of-the-art perovskite devices, and should always be considered when preparing perovskite films for opto-electronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, etc."
-end-
This work was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

Reference

Amita Ummadisingu, Ludmilla Steier, Ji-Youn Seo, Taisuke Matsui, Antonio Abate, Wolfgang Tress, Michael Grätzel. The effect of illumination on the formation of metal halide perovskite films. Nature 26 April 2017. DOI: 10.1038/nature22072

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Related Solar Cells Articles:

Solar cells more efficient thanks to new material standing on edge
Researchers from Lund University in Sweden and from Fudan University in China have successfully designed a new structural organization using the promising solar cell material perovskite.
Printable solar cells just got a little closer
A University of Toronto Engineering innovation could make printing solar cells as easy and inexpensive as printing a newspaper.
A big nano boost for solar cells
Solar cells convert light into electricity. While the sun is one source of light, the burning of natural resources like oil and natural gas can also be harnessed.
Game changer for organic solar cells
Researchers develop a simple processing technique that could cut the cost of organic photovoltaics and wearable electronics.
Physics, photosynthesis and solar cells
A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar cells more efficient.
Throwing new light on printed organic solar cells
Researchers at the University of Surrey have achieved record power conversion efficiencies for large area organic solar cells.
A new way to image solar cells in 3-D
Berkeley Lab scientists have developed a way to use optical microscopy to map thin-film solar cells in 3-D as they absorb photons.
Toward 'greener,' inexpensive solar cells
Solar panels are proliferating across the globe to help reduce the world's dependency on fossil fuels.
A new technique opens up advanced solar cells
Using a novel spectroscopic technique, EPFL scientists have made a much-needed breakthrough in cutting-edge photovoltaics.
OU physicists developing new systems for next generation solar cells
University of Oklahoma physicists are developing novel technologies with the potential to impact utility-scale energy generation, increase global energy capacity and reduce dependence on fossil fuels by producing a new generation of high efficiency solar cells.

Related Solar Cells Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Jumpstarting Creativity
Our greatest breakthroughs and triumphs have one thing in common: creativity. But how do you ignite it? And how do you rekindle it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas on jumpstarting creativity. Guests include economist Tim Harford, producer Helen Marriage, artificial intelligence researcher Steve Engels, and behavioral scientist Marily Oppezzo.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#524 The Human Network
What does a network of humans look like and how does it work? How does information spread? How do decisions and opinions spread? What gets distorted as it moves through the network and why? This week we dig into the ins and outs of human networks with Matthew Jackson, Professor of Economics at Stanford University and author of the book "The Human Network: How Your Social Position Determines Your Power, Beliefs, and Behaviours".