Nav: Home

Barley genome sequenced

April 26, 2017

RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- Looking for a better beer or single malt Scotch whiskey?

A team of researchers at the University of California, Riverside may have you covered. They are among a group of 77 scientists worldwide who have sequenced the complete genome of barley, a key ingredient in beer and single malt Scotch. The research, 10 years in the making, was just published in the journal Nature.

"This takes the level of completeness of the barley genome up a huge notch," said Timothy Close, a professor of genetics at UC Riverside. "It makes it much easier for researchers working with barley to be focused on attainable objectives, ranging from new variety development through breeding to mechanistic studies of genes."

The research will also aid scientists working with other "cereal crops," including rice, wheat, rye, maize, millet, sorghum, oats and even turfgrass, which like the other food crops, is in the grass family, Close said.

Barley has been used for more than 10,000 years as a staple food and for fermented beverages, and as animal feed.

It is found in breakfast cereals and all-purpose flour and helps bread rise. Malted barley gives beer color, body, protein to form a good head, and the natural sugars needed for fermentation. And single malt Scotch is made from only water and malted barley.

The report in Nature provides new insights into gene families that are key to the malting process. The barley genome sequence also enabled the identification of regions of the genome that have been vulnerable to genetic bottlenecking during domestication, knowledge that helps to guide breeders to optimize genetic diversity in their crop improvement efforts.

Ten years ago, the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium, which is led by Nils Stein of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Germany, set out to assemble a complete reference sequence of the barley genome.

This was a daunting task, as the barley genome is almost twice the size of the human genome and 80 percent of it is composed of highly repetitive sequences, which cannot be assigned accurately to specific positions in the genome without considerable extra effort.

Multiple novel strategies were used in this paper to circumvent this fundamental limitation. Major advances in sequencing technology, algorithmic design and computing made it possible. Still, this work kept teams around the world - in Germany, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United State - occupied for a decade. This work provides knowledge of more than 39,000 barley genes.

Alcoholic beverages have been made from malted barley since the Stone Age, and some even consider this to be a major reason why humankind adopted plant cultivation, at least in the Fertile Crescent, where barley was domesticated.

During malting, amylase proteins are produced by germinated seeds to decompose energy-rich starch that is stored in dry grains, yielding simple sugars. These sugars then are available for fermentation by yeast to produce alcohol. The genome sequence revealed much more variability than was expected in the genes that encode the amylase enzymes.

Barley is grown throughout the world, with Russia, Germany, France, Canada, and Spain being among the top producers. In the United States, barley is mainly grown in the northwest. Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota are the leading producers.
-end-
The Nature paper is called "A chromosome conformation capture ordered sequence of the barley genome."

In addition to Close, the following current and former UC Riverside researchers are co-authors of the paper: María Muñoz?Amatriaín, a project scientist and Steve Wanamaker, a programmer, both in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences; Stefano Lonardi, a professor of computer science in the Bourns College of Engineering; and Rachid Ounit, who earned his Ph.D. earlier this year in computer science after working in Lonardi's lab.

The UC Riverside team's contributions were supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Agriculture, and annual support through the UC Riverside Agricultural Experiment Station.

University of California - Riverside

Related Genome Articles:

A close look into the barley genome
An international consortium, with the participation of the Helmholtz Zentrum München, Plant Genome and Systems Biology Department (PGSB), has published methodologically significant data on the barley genome.
Barley genome sequenced
Looking for a better beer or single malt Scotch whiskey?
From Genome Research: Pathogen demonstrates genome flexibility in cystic fibrosis
Chronic lung infections can be devastating for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia, one of the most common species found in cystic fibrosis patients, is often antibiotic resistant.
A three-dimensional map of the genome
Cells face a daunting task. They have to neatly pack a several meter-long thread of genetic material into a nucleus that measures only five micrometers across.
Rhino genome results
A study by San Diego Zoo Global reveals that the prospects for recovery of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros -- of which only three individuals remain -- will reside with the genetic resources that have been banked at San Diego Zoo Global's Frozen Zoo®.
Science and legal experts debate future uses and impact of human genome editing in Gender & the Genome
Precise, economical genome editing tools such as CRISPR have made it possible to make targeted changes in genes, which could be applied to human embryos to correct mutations, prevent disease, or alter traits.
Genome: It's all about architecture
How do pathogens such as bacteria or parasites manage to hide from their host's immune system?
Accelerating genome analysis
An international team of scientists, led by researchers from A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore and the Bioinformatics Institute, have developed SIFT 4G (SIFT for Genomes) -- a software that can lead to faster genome analysis.
Packaging and unpacking of the genome
Single-cell techniques have been used to investigate histone replacement and chromatin remodeling in developing oocytes.
The astounding genome of the dinoflagellate
Dinoflagellates live free-floating in the ocean or symbiotically with corals, serving up -- or as -- lunch to a host of mollusks, tiny fish and coral species.

Related Genome Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Don't Fear Math
Why do many of us hate, even fear math? Why are we convinced we're bad at it? This hour, TED speakers explore the myths we tell ourselves and how changing our approach can unlock the beauty of math. Guests include budgeting specialist Phylecia Jones, mathematician and educator Dan Finkel, math teacher Eddie Woo, educator Masha Gershman, and radio personality and eternal math nerd Adam Spencer.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#517 Life in Plastic, Not Fantastic
Our modern lives run on plastic. It's in the computers and phones we use. It's in our clothing, it wraps our food. It surrounds us every day, and when we throw it out, it's devastating for the environment. This week we air a live show we recorded at the 2019 Advancement of Science meeting in Washington, D.C., where Bethany Brookshire sat down with three plastics researchers - Christina Simkanin, Chelsea Rochman, and Jennifer Provencher - and a live audience to discuss plastics in our oceans. Where they are, where they are going, and what they carry with them. Related links:...