Mole-rats' failure to social distance offers clue for treating some neurological disorders

April 30, 2020

NEW YORK, April 30, 2020 (print edition) -- A new study from researchers at The Graduate Center, CUNY; College of Staten Island; and The University of Helsinki provides insight into what may be occurring in the brains of people with certain neurological conditions, including autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. The work could point toward useful therapies in treating these disorders.

The newly published findings in Current Biology explain why the African naked mole-rat, one of only two mammals to lead eusocial lives, never leave their colony to start new families and pile on top of each other in large groups to sleep inside their nest. Researchers found that these animals have a mutation of the gene for the KCC2 protein, which normally helps inhibit neurons. The variant, called R952H, causes the naked mole-rat to have a harder time suppressing brain activity, so that breathing in uninhibited levels of oxygen when the animals are inactive causes their brains to race and leads to a possible panic response and seizures. But the higher levels of carbon dioxide in their tightly packed nests inhibits brain activity, preventing this response. The researchers confirmed this connection by finding a similar genetic variant in the Damaraland mole-rat, the only other eusocial mammal.

Human brains also require a certain amount of inhibition to operate properly, and KCC2 protein function is developmentally regulated in humans and most other mammals. The mutation of this protein can be responsible for a glitch in brain activity suppression. Interestingly, the R952H variant thought to be responsible for this glitch in mole -rats has been reported in people with autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and epilepsy.

"The link to humans with the R952H is what drives a lot of our questions," said Daniel McCloskey, a psychology professor at The Graduate Center and College of Staten Island. "This has opened our eyes to the idea that some people around us may be more sensitive to the air we breathe and how we breathe it. Maybe there is a fix that can help these people feel more comfortable."

The study proposes that the naked mole-rat could be used as a model to find treatments for people with this genetic difference. Conjunction therapy, in which carbon dioxide or drugs that lower neuron pH is added to an existing treatment regimen, may provide some benefits to individuals with certain neurological disorders and the R952H variant, the study authors noted.
This study was supported through funding from the National Science Foundation, The Academy of Finland, and The Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation.

About The Graduate Center of The City University of New York

The Graduate Center of The City University of New York (CUNY) is a leader in public graduate education devoted to enhancing the public good through pioneering research, serious learning, and reasoned debate. The Graduate Center offers ambitious students more than 40 doctoral and master's programs of the highest caliber, taught by top faculty from throughout CUNY -- the nation's largest public urban university. Through its nearly 40 centers, institutes, and initiatives, including its Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC), The Graduate Center influences public policy and discourse and shapes innovation. The Graduate Center's extensive public programs make it a home for culture and conversation.

Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

Related Schizophrenia Articles from Brightsurf:

Schizophrenia: When the thalamus misleads the ear
Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Synapsy National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) have succeeded in linking the onset of auditory hallucinations - one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia - with the abnormal development of certain substructures of a region deep in the brain called the thalamus.

Unlocking schizophrenia
New research, led by Prof. LIU Bing and Prof. JIANG Tianzi from the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators have recently developed a novel imaging marker that may help in the personalized medicine of psychiatric disorders.

Researchers discover second type of schizophrenia
In a study of more than 300 patients from three continents, over one third had brains that looked similar to healthy people.

New clues into the genetic origins of schizophrenia
The first genetic analysis of schizophrenia in an ancestral African population, the South African Xhosa, appears in the Jan.

Dietary supplement may help with schizophrenia
A dietary supplement, sarcosine, may help with schizophrenia as part of a holistic approach complementing antipsychotic medication, according to a UCL researcher.

Schizophrenia: Adolescence is the game-changer
Schizophrenia may be related to the deletion syndrome. However, not everyone who has the syndrome necessarily develops psychotic symptoms.

Study suggests overdiagnosis of schizophrenia
In a small study of patients referred to the Johns Hopkins Early Psychosis Intervention Clinic (EPIC), Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that about half the people referred to the clinic with a schizophrenia diagnosis didn't actually have schizophrenia.

The ways of wisdom in schizophrenia
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine report that persons with schizophrenia scored lower on a wisdom assessment than non-psychiatric comparison participants, but that there was considerable variability in levels of wisdom, and those with higher scores displayed fewer psychotic symptoms.

Recognizing the uniqueness of different individuals with schizophrenia
Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia differ greatly from one another. Researchers from Radboud university medical center, along with colleagues from England and Norway, have demonstrated that very few identical brain differences are shared amongst different patients.

Resynchronizing neurons to erase schizophrenia
Today, a decisive step in understanding schizophrenia has been taken.

Read More: Schizophrenia News and Schizophrenia Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to