Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 2019

May 01, 2019

Computing--Virtual universes

Using Summit, the world's most powerful supercomputer housed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a team led by Argonne National Laboratory ran three of the largest cosmological simulations known to date. They modeled nearly two trillion particles in each simulation to trace matter distribution and generated a total of eight petabytes of data. These "virtual universes" will enable scientists to compare next-generation telescope observations with some of today's reigning physics theories, including the impact of dark energy and the mass of neutrinos, once thought to be massless, on the structural formation of the universe. "This data will be very valuable for our studies with the Large Synoptic Sky Survey Telescope," said Katrin Heitmann, Argonne physicist and computational scientist and an Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Early Science user. Currently under construction, the telescope will image about 37 billion stars and galaxies, and supercomputing simulations are preparing the project for the monumental data analysis required. [Contact: Katie E. Jones, (865) 241-2679; joneske1@ornl.gov]

Image: https://www.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/2019-04/Virtual_universes.jpg

Caption: ORNL's Summit supercomputer was used to simulate and visualize the matter distribution of a virtual universe, with the gold color representing the highest densities. Credit: Joe Insely, Silvio Rizzi and HACC Team/Argonne National Laboratory

Materials--Mussel-like stickiness

Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a new, stretchy plant-derived material that outperforms the adhesiveness of the natural chemical that gives mussels the ability to stick to rocks and ships. This bio-based material composed of lignin, the substance that gives plants sturdiness, and epoxy can self-heal and elongate up to 2,000%. Researchers developed a unique method to extract a specific form of lignin, a by-product of biofuels production. "We targeted a component of lignin that is naturally rich in hydroxyl groups," said ORNL's Amit Naskar. "The molecular structure creates a super-sticky, highly elastic material that can heal quickly, where broken, through hydrogen bonding." This extracted lignin shows promise to replace dopamine for a range of industrial applications including coatings, glues and hydrogels. The results, published in ACS Macro Letters, demonstrate new potential for a small, but high-value portion of the lignin waste stream from biorefineries and the pulp and paper industry. [Contact: Kim Askey, (865) 576-2841; askeyka@ornl.gov]

Image: https://www.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/2019-04/IMG_4771.JPG

Caption: Researchers developed a new material using epoxy mixed with a form of lignin naturally rich in hydroxyl groups that can self-heal if sliced and elongate up to 2,000%. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy

Manufacturing--Not so heavy metal

A novel additive manufacturing method developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory could be a promising alternative for low-cost, high-quality production of large-scale metal parts with less material waste. Researchers printed thin metal walls using a closed-loop, feedback-controlled technique to provide uniform flat beads and layers at a desired height. The system automatically regulates the printing process, creating stable properties within the metal deposit and producing a high-quality build throughout the part. "We achieved a precise geometry for the components by using real-time feedback sensors to correct for abnormalities," ORNL's Andrzej Nycz said. "Because metal printed walls represent the basic building blocks of parts manufactured with big area additive manufacturing, we expect the same stable properties to hold for parts printed with complex geometries." The large-scale metal additive manufacturing method deposits materials at high rates, which allows for multiple metal feedstocks. The team's results were published in Applied Sciences. [Contact: Jennifer Burke, (865) 576-3212; burkejj@ornl.gov]

Image: https://www.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/2019-04/Metal_print_2.png

Caption: ORNL researchers printed thin metal walls using large-scale metal additive manufacturing, a wire-arc process that demonstrated stability, uniformity and precise geometry throughout the deposition. The method could be a viable option for large-scale additive manufacturing of metal components. ORNL collaborated with industry partner Lincoln Electric. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy

Nuclear--Scale and speed

In a step toward advancing small modular nuclear reactor designs, scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have run reactor simulations on ORNL supercomputer Summit with greater-than-expected computational efficiency. The team's experiments tracked 100 billion particle histories--which are collections of unique, individual neutron interactions that occur within a reactor core--on Summit's sophisticated GPU-based architecture, taking advantage of the supercomputer's full capacity. ORNL scientist Steven Hamilton said the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes used in the simulation ran 30 to 40 times faster and with four to five times greater efficiency on Summit versus the same experiments performed on Titan. Results of the simulations, detailed in Annals of Nuclear Energy, factor into part of an Exascale Computing Project called ExaSMR. "Our hope is to more accurately predict how the reactors will behave before they are built," Hamilton said. "This research instills more confidence that the reactor is going to behave exactly as predicted." [Contact: Sara Shoemaker, (865) 576-9219; shoemakerms@ornl.gov]

Image: https://www.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/2019-04/Nuclear_simulation_scale-up.jpg

Caption: ORNL researchers simulated radiation transport in small modular reactors, or SMRs, by running Monte Carlo codes on Summit, the world's most powerful supercomputer. The simulations factor into part of an Exascale Computing Project called ExaSMR. Credit: Steven Hamilton/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy
-end-


DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Related Supercomputer Articles from Brightsurf:

Supercomputer reveals atmospheric impact of gigantic planetary collisions
The giant impacts that dominate late stages of planet formation have a wide range of consequences for young planets and their atmospheres, according to new research.

Supercomputer model simulations reveal cause of Neanderthal extinction
IBS climate scientists discover that according to new supercomputer model simulations, only competition between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens can explain the rapid demise of Neanderthals around 43 to 38 thousand years ago.

Supercomputer simulations present potential active substances against coronavirus
Several drugs approved for treating hepatitis C viral infection were identified as potential candidates against COVID-19, a new disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

Coronavirus massive simulations completed on Frontera supercomputer
Coronavirus envelope all-atom computer model being developed by Amaro Lab of UC San Diego on NSF-funded Frontera supercomputer of TACC at UT Austin.

Supercomputer shows 'Chameleon Theory' could change how we think about gravity
Supercomputer simulations of galaxies have shown that Einstein's theory of General Relativity might not be the only way to explain how gravity works or how galaxies form.

Scientists develop way to perform supercomputer simulations of the heart on cellphones
You can now perform supercomputer simulations of the heart's electrophysiology in real time on desktop computers and even cellphones.

Tianhe-2 supercomputer works out the criterion for quantum supremacy
A world's first criterion for quantum supremacy was issued, in a research jointly led by Prof.

Supercomputer simulations show new target in HIV-1 replication
Nature study found naturally-occurring compound inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) promotes both assembly and maturation of HIV-1.

Researchers measure the coherence length in glasses using the supercomputer JANUS
Thanks to the JANUS II supercomputer, researchers from Spain and Italy (Institute of Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems of the University of Zaragoza, Complutense University of Madrid, University of Extremadura, La Sapienza University of Rome and University of Ferrara), have refined the calculation of the microscopic correlation length and have reproduced the experimental protocol, enabling them to calculate the macroscopic length.

Officials dedicate OSC's newest, most powerful supercomputer
State officials and Ohio Supercomputer Center leaders gathered at a data center today (March 29) to dedicate the Owens Cluster.

Read More: Supercomputer News and Supercomputer Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.