Nav: Home

International research improves quality of CT scan imagery

May 08, 2020

A window on the body's internal workings

Computed tomography, or CT, utilizes computational processes to combine many X-ray measurements taken from different angles of the body to produce tomographic images. This non-invasive procedure, which provides a three-dimensional reconstructed view of organs or tissues, allows physicians to see inside the target without cutting.

"[This technique] helps experts to determine the presence of a tumour, its exact location, size and spread. It can also be used to diagnose muscle and bone disorders, infection or blood clots, heart disease, lung nodules, and liver masses," said Mohammad Mahdi Dehshibi, a postdoctoral researcher at the UOC's Scene Understanding and Artificial Intelligence laboratory (SUNAI), of the UOC's Faculty of Computer Science, Multimedia and Telecommunications, of the Pattern Research Centre in Teheran, Iran. "This technology is among the most common imaging tools used to guide biopsy and radiation therapy as well as monitoring the effectiveness of treatments like cancer treatment, internal injuries, and bleeding detection."

However, computed tomography involves the risk of damaging the structure of DNA and, subsequently, cancer due to the exposure of the body to high-dose X-rays. For example, in the course of a head CT scan, a person receives a dose of radiation equivalent to the total amount they are usually exposed to in 243 days of normal living.

A new algorithm to reduce radiation

In a search to reduce this radiation, the team led by Dehshibi has developed a new post-processing algorithm which increases the quality of reconstructed CT images. While conventional CT methods pick up only a part of the X-ray energy spectrum, the researchers tested a broader energy range, divided into intervals, to reach higher contrast. After testing it on constructed data using GATE/GEANT4 simulation software, they found that the algorithm enhances the quality of the images while reducing noise, which enables better discrimination between different types of tissue with lower doses of X-rays, according to their findings published in the Journal of Information Processing.

"Distinguishing between two different tissues (either normal or abnormal ones) in the same region is critical for physicians or radiologists to plan for further treatments, where this decision is dealing with the patients' lives," he said. "Having better tissue discrimination increases the success rate of the medicine's plan." The new method increases the capacity to distinguish between tissues by 60% in simulations compared to conventional CT.

"Our viewpoint was proposing a post-processing approach that does not need a substantial hardware reconfiguration and gives more freedom to imaging scientists for further exploration," Dehshibi said. "We hope that the findings of this study are later examined in the clinical setting to reduce the radioactive effect of irradiating with X-ray."
-end-


Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

Related Radiation Articles:

A new way to monitor cancer radiation therapy doses
More than half of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and the dose is critical.
Nimotuzumab-cisplatin-radiation versus cisplatin-radiation in HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 4: In this study, locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation were randomly allocated to weekly cisplatin - radiation {CRT arm} or nimotuzumab -weekly cisplatin -radiation {NCRT arm}.
Breaking up amino acids with radiation
A new experimental and theoretical study published in EPJ D has shown how the ions formed when electrons collide with one amino acid, glutamine, differ according to the energy of the colliding electrons.
Radiation breaks connections in the brain
One of the potentially life-altering side effects that patients experience after cranial radiotherapy for brain cancer is cognitive impairment.
Fragmenting ions and radiation sensitizers
The anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) acts as a radiosensitizer: it is rapidly taken up into the DNA of cancer cells, making the cells more sensitive to radiotherapy.
'Seeing the light' behind radiation therapy
Delivering just the right dose of radiation for cancer patients is a delicate balance in their treatment regime.
Radiation contamination at a crematorium
Radioactive compounds known as radiopharmaceuticals are used in nuclear medicine procedures to diagnose and treat disease.
First study of terahertz radiation in liquids
A research team from ITMO University and the University of Rochester (the USA) conducted a study on the formation of terahertz radiation in liquids.
A new way to create Saturn's radiation belts
A team of international scientists from BAS, University of Iowa and GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has discovered a new method to explain how radiation belts are formed around the planet Saturn.
A better device for measuring electromagnetic radiation
Researchers have developed a better bolometer, a device for measuring electromagnetic radiation.
More Radiation News and Radiation Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Making Amends
What makes a true apology? What does it mean to make amends for past mistakes? This hour, TED speakers explore how repairing the wrongs of the past is the first step toward healing for the future. Guests include historian and preservationist Brent Leggs, law professor Martha Minow, librarian Dawn Wacek, and playwright V (formerly Eve Ensler).
Now Playing: Science for the People

#566 Is Your Gut Leaking?
This week we're busting the human gut wide open with Dr. Alessio Fasano from the Center for Celiac Research and Treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital. Join host Anika Hazra for our discussion separating fact from fiction on the controversial topic of leaky gut syndrome. We cover everything from what causes a leaky gut to interpreting the results of a gut microbiome test! Related links: Center for Celiac Research and Treatment website and their YouTube channel
Now Playing: Radiolab

The Flag and the Fury
How do you actually make change in the world? For 126 years, Mississippi has had the Confederate battle flag on their state flag, and they were the last state in the nation where that emblem remained "officially" flying.  A few days ago, that flag came down. A few days before that, it coming down would have seemed impossible. We dive into the story behind this de-flagging: a journey involving a clash of histories, designs, families, and even cheerleading. This show is a collaboration with OSM Audio. Kiese Laymon's memoir Heavy is here. And the Hospitality Flag webpage is here.