Nav: Home

Can gender play a role in determining cancer treatment choices?

May 09, 2016

It is well known that men and women differ in terms of cancer susceptibility, survival and mortality, but exactly why this occurs at a molecular level has been poorly understood.

A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reviewed 13 cancer types and provided a molecular understanding of sex effects in diverse cancers. The research revealed two cancer-type groups associated with cancer incidence and mortality, suggesting a "pressing need" to develop sex-specific therapeutic strategies for some cancers.

The research findings are published in the May 9 online issue of Cancer Cell.

Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, a team led by Han Liang, Ph.D., associate professor of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, found more than half of the genes studied that were related to clinical practice of cancer treatment showed sex-biased signatures in certain cancer types.

"Our study helps elucidate the molecular basis for sex disparities in cancer and lays a critical foundation for the future development of precision cancer medicine that is sex-specific," said Liang. "This is a crucial finding as currently, male and female patients with many cancer types often are treated in a similar way without explicitly considering their gender."

Liang's group performed a comprehensive analysis of molecular differences between male and female patients, revealing two sex-effect groups associated with distinct incidence and mortality profiles and accounting for 53 percent of clinically actionable genes. Those genes are informative for clinical decisions and are either therapeutic targets or biomarkers that can help predict patient survival or tumor response.

In the study, Liang found one group contained a small number of sex-affected genes (weak group), while the other showed a much greater number of sex-biased molecular signatures (strong group). Liang said the current equal treatment of both genders may be appropriate for those in the "weak" group, but observations in the "strong" group are clinically significant.

"Special consideration should be given to those in the strong sex-effect group in terms of both drug development and practice," said Liang. "For a therapeutic target with a strong sex-biased signature, sex-specific clinical trials may be more likely to succeed. This new information is vital as the fundamental issue of sex differences for cancer prevention and therapy has not been investigated systematically."

Liang's team analyzed data in patient cohorts of 30 or greater samples for each sex for various cancers of the bladder, colon, kidney, brain, rectum, thyroid, liver and lung as well as acute myeloid leukemia. They looked for specific molecular data including somatic mutations, copy alterations, protein and gene expression and DNA methylation. The study included controls for other factors such as race, age, disease stage, smoking status and tumor purity.

"Interestingly, our analysis also suggested that sex bias might be amplified during the tumor formation process," said Liang. "However this observation should be interpreted with caution at this early stage as further efforts are needed to determine the relative contributions of other factors, including tumorigenesis, sex chromosomes and hormones."
-end-
MD Anderson members of the study team included Yuan Yuan, Ph.D., and Jun Li, Ph.D., of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Huzhang Ma, Ph.D., and Liang Li, Ph.D., Biostatistics; and Gordon Mills, M.D., Ph.D., Systems Biology.

Other participating institutions included Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; and Nanjin Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (CA175486 and CA016672), the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RP140462), the Jeanne F. Shelby Scholarship Fund, the Lorraine Dell Program in Bioinformatics for Personalization of Cancer Medicine, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81472782), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20141491), Six Talent Peaks Foundation of Jiangsu Province (2012-WS-026) and the "333" Talents Project of Jiangsu Province.

University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

Related Cancer Articles:

Radiotherapy for invasive breast cancer increases the risk of second primary lung cancer
East Asian female breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy have a higher risk of developing second primary lung cancer.
Cancer genomics continued: Triple negative breast cancer and cancer immunotherapy
Continuing PLOS Medicine's special issue on cancer genomics, Christos Hatzis of Yale University, New Haven, Conn., USA and colleagues describe a new subtype of triple negative breast cancer that may be more amenable to treatment than other cases of this difficult-to-treat disease.
Metabolite that promotes cancer cell transformation and colorectal cancer spread identified
Osaka University researchers revealed that the metabolite D-2-hydroxyglurate (D-2HG) promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells, leading them to develop features of lower adherence to neighboring cells, increased invasiveness, and greater likelihood of metastatic spread.
UH Cancer Center researcher finds new driver of an aggressive form of brain cancer
University of Hawai'i Cancer Center researchers have identified an essential driver of tumor cell invasion in glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of brain cancer that can occur at any age.
UH Cancer Center researchers develop algorithm to find precise cancer treatments
University of Hawai'i Cancer Center researchers developed a computational algorithm to analyze 'Big Data' obtained from tumor samples to better understand and treat cancer.
More Cancer News and Cancer Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Anthropomorphic
Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#534 Bacteria are Coming for Your OJ
What makes breakfast, breakfast? Well, according to every movie and TV show we've ever seen, a big glass of orange juice is basically required. But our morning grapefruit might be in danger. Why? Citrus greening, a bacteria carried by a bug, has infected 90% of the citrus groves in Florida. It's coming for your OJ. We'll talk with University of Maryland plant virologist Anne Simon about ways to stop the citrus killer, and with science writer and journalist Maryn McKenna about why throwing antibiotics at the problem is probably not the solution. Related links: A Review of the Citrus Greening...