Nav: Home

Origin of dromedary domestication discovered

May 09, 2016

The dromedary, the one-humped Arabian camel, plays an important role in the countries of North Africa. For thousands of years, the people of North Africa and Asia have used the animal for the transportation of people and goods. It was fundamental to the development of human societies in inhospitable environments. Dromedaries are the largest domesticated livestock species.

A constant companion with many unknowns

"Many open questions remain with regard to the dromedary's domestication and evolutionary history," explains Pamela Burger from the Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology at Vetmeduni Vienna. "We have managed to turn the wild dromedary into a domesticate, but we don't know how and where domestication began and what effect it has had on today's animals."

During the domestication process, people usually breed the animals by selecting those parts of the genotype that bring the most benefit. The team around Burger has shown for the first time that this was not the case with the dromedary. Dromedaries exhibit an enormous genetic diversity despite the fact that breeding usually results in a low genetic diversity. This makes dromedaries different from other animals domesticated through breeding.

Dromedaries maintain high genetic diversity

Burger and her team collected samples from nearly 1,100 extant dromedaries and compared these with archaeological samples from wild and early-domesticated animals. Using DNA analysis, the researchers determined that the dromedary's genetic diversity is directly related to its use as a transport animal. The forth-and-back movement of the caravans brings different dromedary populations in contact with each other. This leads to a regular gene flow and the maintenance of the genetic diversity. An isolated group is rare. Only one population in East Africa deviated from the genetic diversity of the other dromedaries. This group, however, has been isolated for some time due to geographic obstacles and cultural barriers.

Ancient DNA reveals origin of domesticated dromedary

The regular gene flow reflects a genetic diversity that is usually found only in wild animals. But it makes it difficult to determine the wild form from which today's dromedary is descended and, therefore, where it was domesticated.

Burger and her team succeeded in answering this question. The group of researchers analysed up to 7,000-year-old DNA from bones of wild and early-domesticated dromedaries and compared the samples with the genetic profiles of modern dromedary populations from around the world. For the first time, it was possible to identify the Southeast Arabian Peninsula as the region of first domestication. "Our results appear to confirm that the first domestication of wild dromedaries occurred on the southeast coast. This was followed by repeated breeding of wild dromedaries with the early-domesticated populations," Burger explains. The wild ancestor of today's dromedary had a geographically limited range and went extinct around 2,000 years after the first domestication.
-end-
Service

The article "Ancient and modern DNA reveal dynamics of domestication and cross-continental dispersal of the dromedary" by Faisal Almathen, Pauline Charruau, Elmira Mohandesan, Joram M. Mwacharo, Pablo Orozcoter Wengel, Daniel Pitt, Abdussamad M. Abdussamad, Margarethe Uerpmann, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Bea De Cupere, Peter Magee, Majed A. Alnaqeeb, Bashir Salim, Abdul Raziq, Tadelle Dessien, Omer M. Abdelhadio,Mohammad H. Banabazi, Marzook Al-Eknah, Chris Walzer, Bernard Fayer, Michael Hofreiter, Joris Peterst, Olivier Hanotte and Pamela A. Burger will be published in the Journal PNAS on 9.5.2016, 3:00 EST.

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:

Dr Pamela Burger
Research Institute of Wildlife
University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
Tel: +43 680 1289953
pamela.burger@vetmeduni.ac.at

Released by:

Heike Hochhauser
Corporate Communications
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1151
heike.hochhauser@vetmeduni.ac.at

University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna

Related Genetic Diversity Articles:

Rare genetic disorders: New approach uses RNA in search for genetic triggers
In about half of all patients with rare hereditary disorders, it is still unclear what position of the genome is responsible for their condition.
Major genetic study identifies 12 new genetic variants for ovarian cancer
A genetic trawl through the DNA of almost 100,000 people, including 17,000 patients with the most common type of ovarian cancer, has identified 12 new genetic variants that increase risk of developing the disease and confirmed the association of 18 of the previously published variants.
Use of fetal genetic sequencing increases the detection rate of genetic findings
In a study to be presented Thursday, Jan. 26, in the oral plenary session at 8 a.m.
Diversity without limits
Now, researchers at Temple and Oakland universities have completed a new tree of prokaryotic life calibrated to time, assembled from 11,784 species of bacteria.
Threatened by diversity
Psychologist Brenda Major identifies what may be a key factor in many white Americans' support for Donald Trump.
More Genetic Diversity News and Genetic Diversity Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Teaching For Better Humans
More than test scores or good grades — what do kids need to prepare them for the future? This hour, guest host Manoush Zomorodi and TED speakers explore how to help children grow into better humans, in and out of the classroom. Guests include educators Olympia Della Flora and Liz Kleinrock, psychologist Thomas Curran, and writer Jacqueline Woodson.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#534 Bacteria are Coming for Your OJ
What makes breakfast, breakfast? Well, according to every movie and TV show we've ever seen, a big glass of orange juice is basically required. But our morning grapefruit might be in danger. Why? Citrus greening, a bacteria carried by a bug, has infected 90% of the citrus groves in Florida. It's coming for your OJ. We'll talk with University of Maryland plant virologist Anne Simon about ways to stop the citrus killer, and with science writer and journalist Maryn McKenna about why throwing antibiotics at the problem is probably not the solution. Related links: A Review of the Citrus Greening...