Gamma ray hide & seek

May 14, 2000

Draping the earth and entire universe in a thin, ever-present veil, their origin remains one of the greatest puzzles of cosmology. However, the mystique of gamma rays -- particles of light comprising the most energetic and penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation -- may soon diminish thanks to research by Dr. Eli Waxman of the Weizmann Institute's Condensed Matter Physics Department together with Prof. Abraham Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

Their study, reported in the May 11 issue of Nature, suggests that most of the gamma radiation reaching the earth may actually be leftover energy from massive shock waves induced by gravitational forces. Operating on intergalactic clouds of gas, these forces caused them to collapse into themselves, creating giant galactic clusters. This process produced electrons moving at nearly the speed of light -- roughly 185,000 miles per second. The electrons then collided with low energy photons of the "cosmic microwave background radiation," which is believed to be an "echo" of the Big Bang (the point in time billions of years ago when the universe was created in a cosmic explosion). The collision scattered the photons and increased the energy of a fraction of them to that of gamma rays, thus producing the gamma-ray background radiation seen in today's universe.

The model proposed by Waxman and Loeb, which is consistent with the theory of particle development following the Big Bang, may shed light on the amount of gaseous material currently captured within intergalactic clouds, thereby unraveling another longstanding astrophysical mystery -- that of "missing matter." According to the Big Bang theory, the amount of ordinary matter (as opposed to "dark matter," which is invisible since it does not emit light) in the universe is much larger than that observed in stars and galaxies. Most of the ordinary matter in the universe may therefore be captured within intergalactic clouds, and the observed gamma-ray photons may be the first signature of its existence.

The model and its findings will be examined in upcoming years via an American research satellite probing gamma radiation throughout the universe, as well as a series of earth-based radio wave sensors.
Dr. Eli Waxman's research is supported by the Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Center for Submicron Research.

American Committee for the Weizmann Institute of Science

Related Big Bang Articles from Brightsurf:

Do big tadpoles turn into big frogs? It's complicated, study finds
University of Arizona researchers studied the evolution of the body sizes of frogs and their tadpoles.

A 'bang' in LIGO and Virgo detectors signals most massive gravitational-wave source yet
Researchers have detected a signal from what may be the most massive black hole merger yet observed in gravitational waves.

Analysis: Health sector, big pharma spent big on lobbying for COVID-19 funding
To date, Congress has authorized roughly $3 trillion in COVID-19 relief assistance -- the largest relief package in history.

Unequal neutron-star mergers create unique "bang" in simulations
In a series of simulations, an international team of researchers determined that some neutron star collisions not only produce gravitational waves, but also electromagnetic radiation that should be detectable on Earth.

Supermassive black holes shortly after the Big Bang: How to seed them
They are billions of times larger than our Sun: how is it possible that supermassive black holes were already present when the Universe was 'just' 800 million years old?

Big data could yield big discoveries in archaeology, Brown scholar says
Parker VanValkenburgh, an assistant professor of anthropology, curated a journal issue that explores the opportunities and challenges big data could bring to the field of archaeology.

APS tip sheet: modeling the matter after big bang expansion
Matter's fragmentation after the big bang.

Giving cryptocurrency users more bang for their buck
A new cryptocurrency-routing scheme co-invented by MIT researchers can boost the efficiency -- and, ultimately, profits -- of certain networks designed to speed up notoriously slow blockchain transactions.

The core of massive dying galaxies already formed 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang
The most distant dying galaxy discovered so far, more massive than our Milky Way -- with more than a trillion stars -- has revealed that the 'cores' of these systems had formed already 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, about 1 billion years earlier than previous measurements revealed.

The 'cores' of massive galaxies had already formed 1.5 billion years after the big bang
A distant galaxy more massive than our Milky Way -- with more than a trillion stars - has revealed that the 'cores' of massive galaxies in the Universe had formed already 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, about 1 billion years earlier than previous measurements revealed.

Read More: Big Bang News and Big Bang Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to