Baby galaxies grew up quicklyMay 16, 2012
Baby galaxies from the young Universe more than 12 billion years ago evolved faster than previously thought, shows new research from the Niels Bohr Institute. This means that already in the early history of the Universe, there was potential for planet formation and life. The research results have been published in the scientific journal, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters.
For several thousand years after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, the Universe consisted of a hot, dense primordial soup of gases and particles. But the Universe was expanding rapidly and the primordial soup became less dense and cooled. However, the primordial soup was not evenly distributed, but was denser in some areas than others. The density in some of the densest areas increased due to gravity and began to contract, forming the first stars and galaxies. This took place approximately 500 million years after the Big Bang.
The earliest galaxies were probably comprised of primitive, giant stars that consisted of only hydrogen and helium. There were no heavier elements. They first appeared later in the evolution of the Universe, created by nuclear processes in the stars.
A star is a giant ball of glowing gas that produces energy by fusing hydrogen and helium into heavier and heavier elements. When no more energy can be extracted the star dies and massive clouds of dust and gas are flung out into space. These large clouds are condensed and recycled into new stars in a gigantic cosmic cycle. The new stars that are formed will have a higher content of heavier elements than the previous and for each generation of star formation there are more and more of the heavy elements and metals. And heavy elements (especially carbon and oxygen) are necessary for the formation of planets and life, as we know it.
Up until now, researchers thought that it had taken billions of years for stars to form and with that, galaxies with a high content of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. But new research from the Niels Bohr Institute shows that this process went surprisingly quickly in some galaxies.
"We have studied 10 galaxies in the early Universe and analysed their light spectra. We are observing light from the galaxies that has been on a 10-12 billion year journey to Earth, so we see the galaxies as they were then. Our expectation was that they would be relatively primitive and poor in heavier elements, but we discovered somewhat to our surprise that the gas in some of the galaxies and thus the stars in them had a very high content of heavier elements. The gas was just as enriched as our own Sun," explains Professor Johan Fynbo from the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
Lighthouses of the Universe
The galaxies are so far away that you normally do not have the opportunity to observe them directly, but the researchers have used a special method.
"There are some extreme objects in the Universe called quasars. Quasars are gigantic black holes that are active and when matter falls into them, they emit light that is as strong as thousands of galaxies. They are like a kind of lighthouse that lights up in the Universe and can be seen very far away," explains Jens-Kristian Krogager, PhD student at the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr Institute, University Copenhagen. He explains that in order to use quasars as light sources the quasar must lie behind the galaxy you want to observe.
"We then look at the light from the quasar and can see that some light is missing. The missing quasar light in the image has been absorbed by the chemical elements in the galaxy in front of it. By analysing the spectral lines we can see which elements there are and by measuring the strength of each line we can see the amount of the elements," explains Jens-Kristian Krogager.
Life in the early Universe
They discovered not only that the galaxies from the very early Universe had a surprisingly large quantity of heavier elements, but also that one of the galaxies in particular was especially interesting.
"For one of the galaxies, we observed the outer regions and here there was also a high element content. This suggests that large parts of the galaxy are enriched with a high content of heavier elements and that means that already in the early history of the Universe there was potential for planet formation and life," says Johan Fynbo.
For further information:
Jens-Kristian Krogager, Astrophysicist, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, +45 3139-5099, firstname.lastname@example.org
Johan Fynbo, Professor, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, +45 3532-5983, +45 2875-5983, email@example.com
University of Copenhagen
Related Hydrogen Articles:
The hype around hydrogen fuel cells has died down, but scientists have continued to pursue new technologies that could enable such devices to gain a firmer foothold.
A coating of molybdenum improves the efficiency of catalysts for producing hydrogen.
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope.
Hydrogen is both the simplest and the most-abundant element in the universe, so studying it can teach scientists about the essence of matter.
Nearly a century after it was theorized, Harvard scientists have succeeded in creating metallic hydrogen.
For more than 80 years, it has been predicted that hydrogen will adopt metallic properties under certain conditions, and now researchers have successfully demonstrated this phenomenon.
A new study, affiliated with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology has introduced a new artificial leaf that generates hydrogen, using the power of the Sun to mimic underwater photosynthesis.
The storage of photogenerated electric energy and its release on demand are still among the main obstacles in artificial photosynthesis.
Waseda University researchers have developed a new method for producing hydrogen, which is fast, irreversible, and takes place at much lower temperature using less energy.
A Waseda University research group has developed a polymer which can store hydrogen in a light, compact and flexible sheet, and is safe to touch even when filled with hydrogen gas.
Related Hydrogen Reading:
The Magic of Hydrogen Peroxide
by Emily Thacker (Author)
An Ounce of Hydrogen Peroxide is Worth a Pound of Cure Hydrogen peroxide is trusted by every hospital and emergency room in the country for its remarkable ability to kill deadly germs like E. coli and the swine flu virus. In fact, it has attracted so much interest from doctors that over 6000 articles about it have appeared in scientific publications around the world. Research has discovered that hydrogen peroxide enables your immune system to function properly and fight infection and disease. Doctors have found it can shrink tumors and treat allergies, Alzheimer’s, asthma, clogged arteries,... View Details
2014 True Power of Hydrogen Peroxide, Miracle Path To Wellness - Mary Wright, goes beyond One Minute Cure
by Mary Wright (Author)
The 2014 Publication the True Power of Hydrogen Peroxide, Miracle Path To Wellness (Retail $27.95) is an extraordinary book unlike any prior book on the topic of Hydrogen Peroxide therapy and oxygenation. Well documented but also easy to read, the author gives step-by-step instructions and guidelines to personalize your health and wellness protocol specifically for you for internal and extra body health and wellness, plus the many ways to use hydrogen peroxide in your life. It also warns of ways not to use hydrogen peroxide, something you do not find in other books. Yet the book does not stop... View Details
Hydrogen: The Essential Element
by John S. Rigden (Author)
Seduced by simplicity, physicists find themselves endlessly fascinated by hydrogen, the simplest of atoms. Hydrogen has shocked, it has surprised, it has embarrassed, it has humbled--and again and again it has guided physicists to the edge of new vistas where the promise of basic understanding and momentous insights beckoned. The allure of hydrogen, crucial to life and critical to scientific discovery, is at the center of this book, which tells a story that begins with the big bang and continues to unfold today.
In this biography of hydrogen, John Rigden shows how this singular... View Details
The Hydrogen Sonata (Culture)
by Iain M. Banks (Author)
The New York Times bestselling Culture novel...
The Scavenger species are circling. It is, truly, provably, the End Days for the Gzilt civilization.
An ancient people, organized on military principles and yet almost perversely peaceful, the Gzilt helped set up the Culture ten thousand years earlier and were very nearly one of its founding societies, deciding not to join only at the last moment. Now they've made the collective decision to follow the well-trodden path of millions of other civilizations; they are going to Sublime, elevating themselves to a new and almost... View Details
Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb
by Richard Rhodes (Author)
Here, for the first time, in a brilliant, panoramic portrait by the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Making of the Atomic Bomb, is the definitive, often shocking story of the politics and the science behind the development of the hydrogen bomb and the birth of the Cold War.
Based on secret files in the United States and the former Soviet Union, this monumental work of history discloses how and why the United States decided to create the bomb that would dominate world politics for more than forty years. View Details
Hydrogen Peroxide and Aloe Vera Plus Other Home Remedies
by Conrad LeBeau (Author), Conrad LeBeau (Editor)
Home remedies using hydrogen peroxide, testimonials, case reports and clinical research on preventing and treating over 50 health conditions. Discusses the use of hydrogen peroxide, ozone, castor oil, raw honey, aloe vera, blackstrap molasses, coral calcium, grapefruit seeds, limewater, milk of magnesia, birch water, flaxseed oil, brazil nuts, garlic, oregano, cayenne, wakame and lemons. Includes low cost, non-toxic treatment options for cancer and a chapter on 10 ways to treat infections at home. View Details
Hydrogen Peroxide: Medical Miracle
by William Campbell Douglass II (Author)
'Less is more' when it comes to the small molecule hydrogen peroxide - H2O2 - and the role it plays in maintaining health and fighting diseases. Discover how the miraculous healing agent works, why it's a 'natural' and 'bio-identical' substance, and it's multiple medical applications. View Details
Hydrogen Peroxide Miracles & Cures Handbook: Benefits, Uses & Medical Therapy with Hydrogen Peroxide
by Greg Cook (Author)
The ULTIMATE Guide To Hydrogen Peroxide - Everything You Need To Know! Are You Ready To Improve Your Life With Hydrogen Peroxide? If So You've Come To The Right Place... * * *LIMITED TIME OFFER! 50% OFF!* * * Hydrogen peroxide, whose chemical formula is H2O2, is a popular disinfectant commonly used in clinics and hospitals. Clinical personnel use it to cleanse and disinfect wounds. However, there is more to H2O2 than just its popular use. In this book, you’ll learn more about this chemical compound and how it can change your life! Here's A Preview Of What You'll Learn... ... View Details
101 Home Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide: The Clean Green Home Revolution
by Mundt Becky (Author)
"The Clean Green Home Revolution - 101 Home Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide" is a comprehensive guide to home, garden, spa and personal care uses of hydrogen peroxide from the editor and publisher of FoodGradeH2O2.com. Replace toxic home cleaning products with safe effective hydrogen peroxide! Improve indoor air quality, disinfect and clean without dangerous chemicals. This book will give you all the specific information you need to change the way you keep your house, your garden and even yourself clean and healthy. All natural, non-toxic and 100 percent environmentally safe - hydrogen peroxide... View Details
101 Home Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide: The Clean Green Home Revolution (Natural Miracles) (Volume 1)
by Becky Mundt (Author)
This all new 5th edition of "The Clean Green Home Revolution - 101 Home Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide" is a comprehensive guide to home, garden, spa and personal care uses of hydrogen peroxide from the editor and publisher of FoodGradeH2O2.com.
Replace Toxic Home Cleaning Products with Safe Effective Hydrogen Peroxide - This book will show you how!
Improve indoor air quality, disinfect and clean without dangerous chemicals. 101 Home Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide will give you all the specific information you need to change the way you keep your house, your garden and even... View Details