Nav: Home

Why do we need one pair of genome?

May 24, 2018

Scientists have unraveled how the cell replication process destabilizes when it has more, or less, than a pair of chromosome sets, each of which is called a genome -- a major step toward understanding chromosome instability in cancer cells.

In mammals, including humans, cells which make up the body are diploids, which means that a cell contains a pair of each chromosome. A non-diploid state destabilizes the properties of the cells, triggering abnormalities, cancers and other serious diseases. In asexual reproduction and cancer development, haploid (one set of each chromosome) and tetraploid (four sets of each chromosome) cells are generated, causing chromosomes to become unstable. However, why this instability occurs when the cell is in a non-diploid state has remained unknown.

In the present study, the researchers used human cell lines with different ploidy states -- haploid, diploid and tetraploid -- to investigate the effect of the differences on the cell replication process.

In normal cells, there are two centrosomes, which are regulators of cell replication. The researchers observed gradual loss of centrosomes in haploid cells and frequent over-duplication of centrosomes in tetraploid cells, both of which triggered frequent abnormalities in the cell replication process.

In addition, researchers found that there were fewer cellular fibers, called microtubules, in haploid cells, and more in tetraploid cells. This was significant, as the number of these fibers was found to be a key factor that changes the efficiency of centrosome duplication, resulting in either centrosome loss or over-duplication. On the other hand, the efficiency of DNA replication, which is another important step in cell replication, remained constant, regardless of a cell's ploidy.

"Incompatibility between centrosome duplication and the DNA replication cycle could be the underlying cause of the instability in non-diploid cells in mammals," says Ryota Uehara. "Our findings could help understand chromosome instability in cancer cells, which are often in a non-diploid state, and lead to new cancer treatment strategies."
-end-


Hokkaido University

Related Cancer Cells Articles:

New liver cancer research targets non-cancer cells to blunt tumor growth
'Senotherapy,' a treatment that uses small molecule drugs to target ''senescent'' cells, or those cells that no longer undergo cell division, blunts liver tumor progression in animal models according to new research from a team led by Celeste Simon, PhD, a professor of Cell and Developmental Biology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and scientific director of the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute.
Drug that keeps surface receptors on cancer cells makes them more visible to immune cells
A drug that is already clinically available for the treatment of nausea and psychosis, called prochlorperazine (PCZ), inhibits the internalization of receptors on the surface of tumor cells, thereby increasing the ability of anticancer antibodies to bind to the receptors and mount more effective immune responses.
Engineered bone marrow cells slow growth of prostate and pancreatic cancer cells
In experiments with mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have slowed the growth of transplanted human prostate and pancreatic cancer cells by introducing bone marrow cells with a specific gene deletion to induce a novel immune response.
First phase i clinical trial of CRISPR-edited cells for cancer shows cells safe and durable
Following the first US test of CRISPR gene editing in patients with advanced cancer, researchers report these patients experienced no negative side effects and that the engineered T cells persisted in their bodies -- for months.
Zika virus' key into brain cells ID'd, leveraged to block infection and kill cancer cells
Two different UC San Diego research teams identified the same molecule -- αvβ5 integrin -- as Zika virus' key to brain cell entry.
Plant-derived SVC112 hits cancer stem cells, leaves healthy cells alone
Study shows Colorado drug SVC112 stops production of proteins that cancer stem cells need to survive and grow.
Changes in the metabolism of normal cells promotes the metastasis of ovarian cancer cells
A systematic examination of the tumor and the tissue surrounding it -- particularly normal cells in that tissue, called fibroblasts -- has revealed a new treatment target that could potentially prevent the rapid dissemination and poor prognosis associated with high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), a tumor type that primarily originates in the fallopian tubes or ovaries and spreads throughout the abdominal cavity.
The development of brain stem cells into new nerve cells and why this can lead to cancer
Stem cells are true Jacks-of-all-trades of our bodies, as they can turn into the many different cell types of all organs.
White blood cells related to allergies may also be harnessed to destroy cancer cells
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that white blood cells which are responsible for chronic asthma and modern allergies may be used to eliminate malignant colon cancer cells.
Conversion of breast cancer cells into fat cells impedes the formation of metastases
An innovative combination therapy can force malignant breast cancer cells to turn into fat cells.
More Cancer Cells News and Cancer Cells Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Making Amends
What makes a true apology? What does it mean to make amends for past mistakes? This hour, TED speakers explore how repairing the wrongs of the past is the first step toward healing for the future. Guests include historian and preservationist Brent Leggs, law professor Martha Minow, librarian Dawn Wacek, and playwright V (formerly Eve Ensler).
Now Playing: Science for the People

#565 The Great Wide Indoors
We're all spending a bit more time indoors this summer than we probably figured. But did you ever stop to think about why the places we live and work as designed the way they are? And how they could be designed better? We're talking with Emily Anthes about her new book "The Great Indoors: The Surprising Science of how Buildings Shape our Behavior, Health and Happiness".
Now Playing: Radiolab

The Third. A TED Talk.
Jad gives a TED talk about his life as a journalist and how Radiolab has evolved over the years. Here's how TED described it:How do you end a story? Host of Radiolab Jad Abumrad tells how his search for an answer led him home to the mountains of Tennessee, where he met an unexpected teacher: Dolly Parton.Jad Nicholas Abumrad is a Lebanese-American radio host, composer and producer. He is the founder of the syndicated public radio program Radiolab, which is broadcast on over 600 radio stations nationwide and is downloaded more than 120 million times a year as a podcast. He also created More Perfect, a podcast that tells the stories behind the Supreme Court's most famous decisions. And most recently, Dolly Parton's America, a nine-episode podcast exploring the life and times of the iconic country music star. Abumrad has received three Peabody Awards and was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2011.