Nav: Home

Study sheds new light on the harms of air pollution

May 29, 2019

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A new University at Buffalo study based on levels before, during and after the Beijing Olympics reveals how air pollution affects the human body at the level of metabolites.

Researchers found that 69 metabolites changed significantly when air pollution changed. Their results were published today (May 29) in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

The study identified two major metabolic signatures, one consisting of lipids and a second that included dipeptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, taurine, and xanthine. Many of those metabolites are involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, cardiovascular and nervous systems, researchers note.

The findings are based on the Beijing Olympics Air Pollution study, conducted during the 2008 Olympic Games in China, when temporary air pollution controls were implemented. The study was led by UB epidemiologist Lina Mu.

The study enrolled 201 adults prior to Beijing's air quality improvement initiative, when air pollution was high. Researchers followed them during the Games, when air pollution was low, and afterward, when levels returned to their usual high in the city of 21 million people. A subset of 26 non-smokers aged 30 to 65 was selected for the metabolomics analysis.

Metabolites are small molecules that are the end products of environmental exposures, such as air pollution, and body metabolism. "Think of our body as a society. These metabolites fulfill different positions, such as teacher, farmer, worker, soldier. We need each one functioning properly in order to maintain a healthy system," said Mu, PhD, associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health in UB's School of Public Health and Health Professions.

"Our study found that the human body had systemic changes at the metabolite level before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics, when ambient air pollution changed drastically," said Zhongzheng Niu, a PhD candidate and a paper co-author.

The molecules mostly belonged to the lipid and dipeptide families.

The study provides researchers with a broader view of the molecular mechanism underlying the impact of air pollution on the human body. Most previous studies only looked at a small number of molecules. However, the human body is complex and molecules affect one another.

Mu and her colleagues used the "omics" method, a new platform that can measure a whole collection of all detectable metabolites -- 886 in their study -- simultaneously. Instead of examining these molecules one by one, Mu and her team used network analysis to analyze them all together.

"We found that these metabolites together depicted a relatively comprehensive picture of human body responses to air pollution," said paper co-author Rachael Hageman Blair, associate professor of biostatistics at UB. She and her team developed the novel analysis method used in the study

The responses include cellular stability, oxidative stress, anti-oxidation and inflammation.

Researchers measured metabolomics repeatedly when air pollution was high, low and high. Such a design mimicked a "natural experiment" while controlling for variations unrelated to air pollution changes. This provided stronger evidence than previous studies.

Air pollution is an environmental exposure that can't be avoided by people who live in places like Beijing. The World Health Organization reports that 91 percent of the world's population lives in places where air quality exceeds WHO guidelines.

Once inhaled, air pollutants stimulate the body's respiratory system, including the nose and lungs. Some cells in the body may be directly insulted by these air pollutants, their membrane may be broken, their secretion may be disordered, and they may send out signaling molecules to other organs for subsequent responses, Mu explains. Metabolites are all these broken membranes, secreted products and signals.

"Capturing these molecules tells us what is going on when people are exposed to air pollution," Mu said.

Air pollution also induces cellular oxidative stress, which breaks cell membranes.

Researchers found that some molecules that serve as building blocks of cell membranes were elevated when air pollution levels rose. Broken cell membranes release different kinds of lipid molecules. Some of these lipid molecules, with the help of enzymes, turn to inflammatory molecules, which could be harmful to the body.

"The good thing is that we also found some protective molecules, namely antioxidants, also increased when air pollution is high, indicating our body has a defense system to reduce harm," Mu said.

Studies such as this one may help identify individuals most vulnerable to air pollution, as well as finding potential biological pathways to guide treatment that reduces harm to the body, Mu said.
-end-
Mu's UB co-authors include Richard Browne, associate professor of biotechnical and clinical laboratory sciences, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences; Matthew Bonner, associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health; and Mya Swanson, data manager/statistician, Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health.

Furong Deng of Peking University is also a co-author.

University at Buffalo

Related Air Pollution Articles:

Combatting air pollution with nature
Air pollution is composed of particles and gases that can have negative impacts on both the environment and human health.
Nature might be better than tech at reducing air pollution
Adding plants and trees to the landscapes near factories and other pollution sources could reduce air pollution by an average of 27 percent, new research suggests.
Aspirin may prevent air pollution harms
A new study is the first to report evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin may lessen the adverse effects of air pollution exposure on lung function.
Curbing indoor air pollution in India
Clean cooking energy transitions are extremely challenging to achieve, but they offer enormous potential health, environmental, and societal benefits.
Exposure to air pollution in India is associated with more hypertension in women
The CHAI project assessed the link between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon and blood pressure in over 5,500 people living in a peri-urban area near Hyderabad city
Study finds link between hypertension and air pollution
A new study soon to appear in the Faculty of Public Health's Journal of Public Health, published by Oxford University Press, suggests that air pollution and living in apartment buildings may be associated with an increased risk for dangerous conditions like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Study sheds new light on the harms of air pollution
A new University at Buffalo study based on levels before, during and after the Beijing Olympics reveals how air pollution affects the human body at the level of metabolites.
Severe air pollution can cause birth defects, deaths
In a comprehensive study, researchers from Texas A&M University have determined that harmful particulate matter in the atmosphere can produce birth defects and even fatalities during pregnancy using the animal model.
A new view of wintertime air pollution
The team's unexpected finding suggests that in the US West and elsewhere, certain efforts to reduce harmful wintertime air pollution could backfire.
Study examines indoor exposure to air pollution
In an Indoor Air study conducted in a suburb of the city of Kuopio, Finland, relatively short-lasting wood and candle burning of a few hours increased residents' daily exposure to potentially hazardous particulate air pollution.
More Air Pollution News and Air Pollution Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Risk
Why do we revere risk-takers, even when their actions terrify us? Why are some better at taking risks than others? This hour, TED speakers explore the alluring, dangerous, and calculated sides of risk. Guests include professional rock climber Alex Honnold, economist Mariana Mazzucato, psychology researcher Kashfia Rahman, structural engineer and bridge designer Ian Firth, and risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#541 Wayfinding
These days when we want to know where we are or how to get where we want to go, most of us will pull out a smart phone with a built-in GPS and map app. Some of us old timers might still use an old school paper map from time to time. But we didn't always used to lean so heavily on maps and technology, and in some remote places of the world some people still navigate and wayfind their way without the aid of these tools... and in some cases do better without them. This week, host Rachelle Saunders...
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dolly Parton's America: Neon Moss
Today on Radiolab, we're bringing you the fourth episode of Jad's special series, Dolly Parton's America. In this episode, Jad goes back up the mountain to visit Dolly's actual Tennessee mountain home, where she tells stories about her first trips out of the holler. Back on the mountaintop, standing under the rain by the Little Pigeon River, the trip triggers memories of Jad's first visit to his father's childhood home, and opens the gateway to dizzying stories of music and migration. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.