Renegade fat cells induce bone-damaging lesions in multiple myeloma

May 29, 2019

A study of samples from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has demonstrated how "reprogrammed" fat cells contribute to long-lasting bone damage, even after the cancer has gone into remission. Targeting a molecular complex reduced the severity of damaging bone lesions in mice, hinting towards possible strategies for treating this common and debilitating complication of MM. This malignancy occurs when cancerous plasma cells accumulate in bone marrow and adversely impact the production of other blood cells. More than 80% of patients with MM also develop osteolytic lesions on their bones, which can cause severe pain and bone fractures. These lesions do not heal even if the underlying cancer is successfully treated, resulting in long-term deficits in bone healing and a lower quality of life. To understand why osteolytic lesions do not heal, Huan Liu and colleagues studied marrow samples from patients with active MM, patients in remission and healthy controls. They observed that the sites near osteolytic lesions harbored high amounts of bone marrow fat cells (or adipocytes). Adipocytes grown in culture alongside myeloma cells transitioned into a reprogrammed state where they released enzymes that suppressed bone formation and promoted bone breakdown. Further analysis showed myeloma cells converted adipocytes by activating a molecular complex called PRC2, which in turn repressed the activity of a receptor named PPARγ. Deactivating a component of PRC2 named EZH2 in adipocytes prevented their reprogramming and reduced the severity of bone lesions in a mouse model of MM remission, suggesting that restoring PPARγ activity could help heal bone lesions in patients.
-end-


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Cancer Articles from Brightsurf:

New blood cancer treatment works by selectively interfering with cancer cell signalling
University of Alberta scientists have identified the mechanism of action behind a new type of precision cancer drug for blood cancers that is set for human trials, according to research published in Nature Communications.

UCI researchers uncover cancer cell vulnerabilities; may lead to better cancer therapies
A new University of California, Irvine-led study reveals a protein responsible for genetic changes resulting in a variety of cancers, may also be the key to more effective, targeted cancer therapy.

Breast cancer treatment costs highest among young women with metastic cancer
In a fight for their lives, young women, age 18-44, spend double the amount of older women to survive metastatic breast cancer, according to a large statewide study by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Cancer mortality continues steady decline, driven by progress against lung cancer
The cancer death rate declined by 29% from 1991 to 2017, including a 2.2% drop from 2016 to 2017, the largest single-year drop in cancer mortality ever reported.

Stress in cervical cancer patients associated with higher risk of cancer-specific mortality
Psychological stress was associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality in women diagnosed with cervical cancer.

Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify one way T cell function may fail in cancer
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have discovered a mechanism by which one type of immune cell, CD8+ T cells, can become dysfunctional, impeding its ability to seek and kill cancer cells.

More cancer survivors, fewer cancer specialists point to challenge in meeting care needs
An aging population, a growing number of cancer survivors, and a projected shortage of cancer care providers will result in a challenge in delivering the care for cancer survivors in the United States if systemic changes are not made.

New cancer vaccine platform a potential tool for efficacious targeted cancer therapy
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered a solution in the form of a cancer vaccine platform for improving the efficacy of oncolytic viruses used in cancer treatment.

American Cancer Society outlines blueprint for cancer control in the 21st century
The American Cancer Society is outlining its vision for cancer control in the decades ahead in a series of articles that forms the basis of a national cancer control plan.

Read More: Cancer News and Cancer Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.