Researchers find what could be brain's trigger for binge behaviorMay 31, 2016
Rats that responded to cues for sugar with the speed and excitement of binge-eaters were less motivated for the treat when certain neurons were suppressed, researchers discovered.
The findings suggest these neurons, in a largely unstudied region of the brain, are deeply connected to the tendency to overindulge in response to external triggers, a problem faced by people addicted to food, alcohol and drugs. The findings, due to appear in the June 15 issue of the journal Neuron, are now available online.
"External cues -- anything from a glimpse of powder that looks like cocaine or the jingle of an ice cream truck -- can trigger a relapse or binge eating," said Jocelyn M. Richard, a Johns Hopkins University post-doctoral fellow in psychological and brain sciences and the report's lead author. "Our findings show where in the brain this connection between environmental stimuli and the seeking of food or drugs is occurring."
First researchers trained rats to realize that if they heard a certain sound, either a siren or staccato beeps, and a pushed a lever, they would get a drink of sugar water. Then, as the rats performed the task, researchers monitored neurons within the ventral pallidum area of the rats' brains, a subcortical structure near the base of the brain.
When the rats heard the cue linked to their treat, a much larger-than-expected number of neurons reacted -- and vigorously, researchers found. They also found that when the neuron response was particularly robust, the rats were extra quick to go for the sugar. The researchers were able to predict how fast the rats would move for the sugar just by observing how excited the neurons became at the sound of the cue.
"We were surprised to see such a high number of neurons showing such a big increase in activity as soon as the sound played," Richard said.
Next, the researchers used "optogenetics," a technique that allows the manipulation of cells through targeted beams of light, to temporarily suppress the activity of ventral pallidum neurons while the rats heard the sugar cues. With those neurons inactive, the rats were less likely to pull the sugar lever; when they did pull it, they were much slower to do so.
That ability to slow and calm the reaction to cues or triggers for binges could be key for people trying to moderate addictive behaviors, Richard said.
"We don't want to make it so that people don't want rewards," Richard said. "We want to tone down the exaggerated motivation for rewards.
The research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants AA022290 and AA014925 and by the State of California.
Johns Hopkins University
Related Neurons Articles:
One of the big challenges in the Neuroscience field is to understand how connections and communications trigger our behavior.
In a new study published in Neuron, investigators report on a transcription factor that they have found that can help certain neurons regenerate, while simultaneously killing others.
When many individual neurons collect data, how do they reach a unanimous decision?
Individual neurons can learn not only single responses to a particular signal, but also a series of reactions at precisely timed intervals.
Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster.
Turning the theory of how the human brain perceives time on its head, a novel analysis in mice reveals that dopamine neuron activity plays a key role in judgment of time, slowing down the internal clock.
Researchers have identified a large population of previously unrecognized young neurons that migrate in the human brain during the first few months of life, contributing to the expansion of the frontal lobe, a region important for social behavior and executive function.
For decades, scientists have struggled to develop a comprehensive census of cell types in the brain.
In the brain, patterns of neural activity are perfectly balanced.
University of Alberta researchers have developed a method of connecting neurons, using ultrashort laser pulses -- a breakthrough technique that opens the door to new medical research and treatment opportunities.
Related Neurons Reading:
From Neuron to Brain
by John G. Nicholls (Author), A. Robert Martin (Author), David A. Brown (Author), Mathew E. Diamond (Author), David A. Weisblat (Author), Paul A. Fuchs (Author)
From Neuron to Brain, Fifth Edition, provides a readable, up-to-date book for use in undergraduate, graduate, and medical school courses in neuroscience. As in previous editions, the emphasis is on experiments made by electrical recordings, molecular and cellular biological techniques, and behavioral studies on the nervous system, from simple reflexes to cognitive functions. Lines of research are followed from the inception of an idea to new findings being made in laboratories and clinics today.
A major change is that this edition begins with the anatomy and physiology of the... View Details
The Neuron: Cell and Molecular Biology
by Irwin B. Levitan (Author), Leonard K. Kaczmarek (Author)
The Fourth Edition of The Neuron provides a comprehensive first course in the cell and molecular biology of nerve cells. The book begins with properties of the many newly discovered ion channels that have emerged through mapping of the genome. These channels shape the way a single neuron generates varied patterns of electrical activity. Covered next are the molecular mechanisms that convert electrical activity into the secretion of neurotransmitter hormones at synaptic junctions between neurons. The following section examines the biochemical pathways that are linked to the action of... View Details
The Neuron: Cell and Molecular Biology
by Irwin B. Levitan (Author), Leonard K. Kaczmarek (Author)
The third edition of The Neuron provides a comprehensive first course in the cell and molecular biology of nerve cells. The first part of the book covers the properties of the many ion channels that shape the way a single neuron generates varied patterns of electrical activity, as well as the molecular mechanisms that convert electrical activity into the secretion of neurotransmitter hormones at synaptic junctions between neurons. The second part covers the biochemical pathways that are linked to the action of neurotransmitters and can alter the cellular properties of neurons or... View Details
From Photon to Neuron: Light, Imaging, Vision
by Philip Nelson (Author)
A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light
Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view... View Details
The 7 Secrets of Neuron Leadership: What Top Military Commanders, Neuroscientists, and the Ancient Greeks Teach Us about Inspiring Teams
by W. Craig Reed (Author), Gordon R. England (Foreword)
Leadership techniques backed by the world's most effective teams
The 7 Secrets of Neuron Leadership offers a diverse collection of wisdom and practical knowledge to help you build and lead your most effective team yet. Written by a former U.S. Navy diver, this book draws from the author's experiences and beyond to reveal key truths about the nature of teamwork, and expose the core of effective team leadership. You'll go back to ancient Greece to discover the nine personality types and the seven types of love that form the foundation of human interaction, and learn how... View Details
Neurons In Action 2: Tutorials and Simulations using NEURON
by John W. Moore (Author), Anne E. Stuart (Author)
Neurons in Action 2 is the second version of a unique CD-ROM-based learning tool that combines hyperlinked text with NEURON simulations of laboratory experiments in neurophysiology. Version 2 features nine new tutorials introducing new channel types, single-channel simulations, and a redesigned interface. Neurons in Action s moving graphs provide insight into nerve function that is simply not possible with conventional, static text and figure presentations. Students discover how changing parameters such a neuronal geometry, ion concentrations, ion channel densities, and degree of myelination... View Details
From Neurons to Neighborhoods : The Science of Early Childhood Development
by Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development (Author), Youth, and Families Board on Children (Author), National Research Council (Author), Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development (Author), Jack P. Shonkoff (Editor), Deborah A. Phillips (Editor)
How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media.
How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a... View Details
From Neuron to Cognition via Computational Neuroscience (Computational Neuroscience Series)
by Michael A. Arbib (Editor), James J. Bonaiuto (Editor)
A comprehensive, integrated, and accessible textbook presenting core neuroscientific topics from a computational perspective, tracing a path from cells and circuits to behavior and cognition.
This textbook presents a wide range of subjects in neuroscience from a computational perspective. It offers a comprehensive, integrated introduction to core topics, using computational tools to trace a path from neurons and circuits to behavior and cognition. Moreover, the chapters show how computational neuroscience -- methods for modeling the causal interactions underlying neural... View Details
The Myth of Mirror Neurons: The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition
by Gregory Hickok (Author)
An essential reconsideration of one of the most far-reaching theories in modern neuroscience and psychology.In 1992, a group of neuroscientists from Parma, Italy, reported a new class of brain cells discovered in the motor cortex of the macaque monkey. These cells, later dubbed mirror neurons, responded equally well during the monkey’s own motor actions, such as grabbing an object, and while the monkey watched someone else perform similar motor actions. Researchers speculated that the neurons allowed the monkey to understand others by simulating their actions in its... View Details
I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self
by Rodolfo R. Llinas (Author)
A highly original theory of how the mind-brain works, based on the author's study of single neuronal cells.
In I of the Vortex, Rodolfo Llinas, a founding father of modern brain science, presents an original view of the evolution and nature of mind. According to Llinas, the "mindness state" evolved to allow predictive interactions between mobile creatures and their environment. He illustrates the early evolution of mind through a primitive animal called the "sea squirt." The mobile larval form has a brainlike ganglion that receives sensory information about the... View Details