Monitoring environmental exposures in dogs could be early warning system for human health

June 01, 2020

Man's best friend may also be man's best bet for figuring out how environmental chemicals could impact our health. Researchers from North Carolina State University and Duke University's Nicholas School of the Environment used silicone dog tags as passive environmental samplers to collect information about everyday chemical exposures, and found that dogs could be an important sentinel species for the long term effects of environmental chemicals.

"Silicone monitoring devices are still relatively new, but they represent an inexpensive and effective way to measure exposure to the chemicals we encounter in daily life - from pesticides to flame retardants," says Catherine Wise, Ph.D. candidate at NC State and lead author of a paper describing the work. "And we know that many human diseases caused by environmental exposure are similar clinically and biologically to those found in dogs."

Wise and researchers from NC State and Duke recruited 30 dogs and their owners to wear silicone monitors for a five-day period in July 2018. Humans wore wristbands, while the dogs wore tags on their collars.

The researchers analyzed the wristbands and tags for exposures to chemicals within three classes of environmental toxicants that are often found in human blood and urine: pesticides, flame retardants, and phthalates, which are found in plastic food packaging and personal care products. They found high correlations between exposure levels for owners and their pets. Urinalysis also revealed the presence of organophosphate esters (found in some flame retardants) in both owners and dogs.

"What was remarkable about these results were the similar patterns of exposure between people and their pets," says Heather Stapleton, Ronie-Richelle Garcia-Johnson Distinguished Professor, director of the Duke Environmental Analysis Laboratory at the Nicholas School and co-author of the research. "It's quite clear that the home environment contributes strongly to our daily exposure to chemical contaminants."

However, while dogs and humans may share similar exposures, the health effects do not follow similar timelines - a fact that could aid researchers in teasing out relationships between chemical exposure and human health. "Dogs are special when it comes to linking exposures and disease outcomes because effects that may take decades to show up in humans can occur in one to two years in a dog," Wise says.

"Humans spend incredible amounts of time with their dogs - that's especially true right now," says Matthew Breen, Oscar J. Fletcher Distinguished Professor of Comparative Oncology Genetics at NC State and corresponding author of the paper. "If we develop ways to correlate dog disease with their exposures over time, it may give human-health professionals the opportunity to mitigate these exposures for both species. Dogs are a powerful biological sentinel species for human disease."
The work appears in Environmental Science & Technology, and was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science, the NC State Cancer Genomics Fund and the Wallace Genetic Foundation.

Note to editors: An abstract follows.

"Comparative Exposure Assessment Using Silicone Passive Samplers Indicates Domestic

Dogs are Sentinels to Support Human Health Research"

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b06605

Authors: Catherine Wise, Jun Ma, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Matthew Breen, North Carolina State University; Stephanie Hammel, Nicholas Herkert, Heather Stapleton, Duke University

Published: Online in Environmental Science & Technology

Silicone wristbands are promising passive samplers to support epidemiology studies in characterizing exposure to organic contaminants; however, investigating associated health risks remains challenging due to the latency period for many chronic diseases that take years to manifest. Dogs provide valuable insights as sentinels for exposure-related human disease because they share similar exposures in the home, have shorter lifespans, share many clinical/biological features, and have closely related genomes. Here, we evaluated exposures among pet dogs and their owners using silicone dog tags and wristbands to determine if contaminant levels were correlated with validated exposure biomarkers. Significant correlations between measures on dog tags and wristbands were observed (rs = 0.38-0.90; p <0.05). Correlations with their respective urinary biomarkers were stronger in dog tags compared to human wristbands (rs = 0.50-0.71; p <0.01) for several organophosphate esters. This supports the value of using silicone bands with dogs to investigate health impacts on humans from shared exposures.

North Carolina State University

Related Flame Retardants Articles from Brightsurf:

Blue whirl flame structure revealed with supercomputers
Main structure and flow structure of 'blue whirl' flame revealed through supercomputer simulations.

New research reveals mysterious blue whirl flame structure
A recently discovered soot-free flame called a blue whirl - which consumes all fuel it encounters -- actually consists of three different flame structures that swirl together into one otherworldly blue ring, according to the first study to identify how these unique flames form.

A shake-up in cell culturing: Flame sterilization may affect the culture
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found that flame-sterilizing shake-flasks, to avoid introducing microbial contaminants, considerably increases the carbon dioxide concentration in the flasks.

Study finds another reason to wash hands: Flame retardants
Harmful flame retardants may be lurking on your hands and cell phone, according to a peer-reviewed study published today in Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

Study reveals birth defects caused by flame retardant
A new study from the University of Georgia has shown that exposure to a now-banned flame retardant can alter the genetic code in sperm, leading to major health defects in children of exposed parents.

Flame retardants and pesticides overtake heavy metals as biggest contributors to IQ loss
Adverse outcomes from childhood exposures to lead and mercury are on the decline in the United States, likely due to decades of restrictions on the use of heavy metals, a new study finds.

Prenatal Exposure to Flame Retardants Linked to Reading Problems
A new study from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons suggests that prenatal exposure to flame retardants may increase the risk of reading problems.

New flame retardants, old problems
New flame retardants escaping from our TVs, other electrical and electronic products, and children's car seats are just as toxic as the flame retardants they're intended to replace, according to a peer-reviewed study published today in Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

Flame retardants -- from plants
Flame retardants are present in thousands of everyday items, from clothing to furniture to electronics.

New process discovered to completely degrade flame retardant in the environment
A team of environmental scientists from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and China has for the first time used a dynamic, two-step process to completely degrade a common flame-retardant chemical, rendering the persistent global pollutant nontoxic.

Read More: Flame Retardants News and Flame Retardants Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to