Nav: Home

African-Americans still disproportionately affected by HIV

June 05, 2018

African-Americans are still much more likely to be diagnosed with HIV than white Americans. A new paper on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the African-American community shows that despite recent drops in HIV diagnoses across every population in the US, there are still great disparities between ethnic groups. The paper was led by Cato T. Laurencin of the University of Connecticut in the US and is published in Springer's Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

A decade ago Laurencin and his team published a call for action paper that highlighted high numbers of HIV diagnoses in the African American community. This follow-up paper now draws on data from surveys such as the 2010 United States Census and the 2016 HIV Surveillance Report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Worryingly, the paper's analysis shows that the trends highlighted 10 years ago have continued and in some regards worsened. For male and female populations in 2016, Blacks were 8.4 times more likely than whites to be diagnosed with HIV, whereas in 2005 they were 7.9 times more likely. Specifically, the number of Black males diagnosed with the disease in 2005 was 9,969 and increased by 29% to 12,890 in 2016.

Black male-to-male sexual contact was the most common form of transmission of HIV and the number of men that have sex with men who were diagnosed with HIV increased 154% from 4,020 in 2005 to 10,233 in 2016. Laurencin and his team point out that if this trend continues, one in two Black men who engage in sexual contact with men will receive an HIV diagnosis in their lifetimes.

The number of African-American females diagnosed with HIV through heterosexual contact increased by 75% from 2,392 in 2005 to 4,189 in 2016, and there was also a 76% increase in HIV diagnoses among heterosexual black men in the same time period.

"It is clear that much more needs to be done to address the fact that African-Americans continue to be overrepresented across all categories of transmission," said Laurencin.

Laurencin and his team recommend a five-fold plan aimed at healthcare practitioners and community advocates. The plan includes working to eliminate prejudices and unconscious biases when treating patients, and employing new technology and techniques to help prevent or eradicate HIV/AIDs. Working towards reducing secondary factors such as incarceration rates, poverty, STDs and other circumstances that increase the chances of contracting HIV is also another recommendation.

"While higher rates of poverty and prevalence of negative socio-economic determinants in African-American are important underlying factors, we believe that a concerted, re-dedicated effort - as seen with other national health emergencies such as the opioid crisis - can create meaningful change in the decade to come," said Laurencin.
-end-
Reference: Laurencin, C.T. et al (2018). HIV/AIDS and the African-American Community 2018: A Decade Call to Action, Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities DOI: 10.1007/s40615-018-0491-0

Springer

Related Hiv Articles:

Defective HIV proviruses reduce effective immune system response, interfere with HIV cure
A new study finds defective HIV proviruses, long thought to be harmless, produce viral proteins and distract the immune system from killing intact proviruses needed to reduce the HIV reservoir and cure HIV.
1 in 7 people living with HIV in the EU/EEA are not aware of their HIV status
Almost 30,000 newly diagnosed HIV infections were reported by the 31 European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2015, according to data published today by ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Smoking may shorten the lifespan of people living with HIV more than HIV itself
A new study led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital finds that cigarette smoking substantially reduces the lifespan of people living with HIV in the US, potentially even more than HIV itself.
For smokers with HIV, smoking may now be more harmful than HIV itself
HIV-positive individuals who smoke cigarettes may be more likely to die from smoking-related disease than the infection itself, according to a new study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Patients diagnosed late with HIV infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others
An estimated 1.2 million people live with HIV in the United States, with nearly 13 percent being unaware of their infection.
The Lancet HIV: New HIV infections stagnating at 2.5 million a year worldwide
A major new analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study, published today in The Lancet HIV journal, reveals that although deaths from HIV/AIDS have been steadily declining from a peak in 2005, 2.5 million people worldwide became newly infected with HIV in 2015, a number that hasn't changed substantially in the past 10 years.
NIH scientists discover that defective HIV DNA can encode HIV-related proteins
Investigators from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that cells from HIV-infected people whose virus is suppressed with treatment harbor defective HIV DNA that can nevertheless be transcribed into a template for producing HIV-related proteins.
Study examines risk of HIV transmission from condomless sex with virologically suppressed HIV infection
Among nearly 900 serodifferent (one partner is HIV-positive, one is HIV-negative) heterosexual and men who have sex with men couples in which the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive antiretroviral therapy and who reported condomless sex, during a median follow-up of 1.3 years per couple, there were no documented cases of within-couple HIV transmission, according to a study appearing in the July 12 issue of JAMA, an HIV/AIDS theme issue.
HIV vaccine design should adapt as HIV virus mutates
Researchers from UAB, Emory and Microsoft demonstrate that HIV has evolved to be pre-adapted to the immune response, worsening clinical outcomes in newly infected patients.
Charlie Sheen's HIV disclosure may reinvigorate awareness, prevention of HIV
Actor Charlie Sheen's public disclosure in November 2015 that he has the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) corresponded with the greatest number of HIV-related Google searches ever recorded in the United States, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Related Hiv Reading:

HIV Essentials 2017
by Paul E. Sax (Author), Calvin J. Cohen (Author), Daniel R. Kuritzkes (Author)

The world's leading experts provide all the 'essentials' needed to manage HIV patients in the office, on the ward, and in the ICU.

Completely revised and updated, HIV Essentials 2017 incorporates the latest clinical guidelines into a step-by-step guide to the diagnosis, evaluation, management, and prevention of HIV infection and its complications. Topics include: opportunistic infections and other HIV complications, treatment of HIV and pregnancy, antiretroviral drug summaries, post-exposure prophylaxis, as well as commercially available dosage forms for all ARVs. View Details


2018 ADULT HIV/AIDS TREATMENT POCKET GUIDE (2018 edition)
by John G Bartlett (Author), Paul A Pham (Author)

This HIV/AIDS summarizes National Clinical Guidelines with an attempt to achieve brevity, clarity and accuracy in guiding clinical decisions relevant to the management of adult patients with HIV/AIDS. This guide includes expanded drug-drug interactions tables, antiretroviral pictures tables, and summary of treatment guidelines. 

View Details


Fundamentals of HIV Medicine: (CME edition)
by American Academy of HIV Medicine (Compiler), W. David Hardy (Compiler)

Completely updated for 2017, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine is a comprehensive clinical care publication for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Published by the American Academy of HIV Medicine, the book offers physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and other care providers the most up-to-date overview of the latest HIV treatments and guidelines plus online access to CME. The online access expires August 2018.

Embodying the AAHIVM's commitment to promoting uniform excellence in care of seropositive patients, Fundamentals of HIV Medicine 2017 empowers health... View Details


100 Questions & Answers About HIV and AIDS
by Joel E. Gallant (Author)

Whether you're a newly diagnosed patient or a friend or relative of someone suffering from HIV or AIDS, this book can help. Offering both doctor and patient perspectives, 100 Questions & Answers About HIV and AIDS, Fourth Edition provides authoritative and practical answers to the most commonly asked questions by patients and their loved ones. What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? How can HIV infection be prevented? How do I find the right medical care?

Along with the answers to these and other questions, this book provides information on diagnosis, treatment, living with HIV... View Details


Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371 (Graphic Medicine)
by MK Czerwiec (Author)

In 1994, at the height of the AIDS epidemic in the United States, MK Czerwiec took her first nursing job, at Illinois Masonic Medical Center in Chicago, as part of the caregiving staff of HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. Taking Turns pulls back the curtain on life in the ward.

A shining example of excellence in the treatment and care of patients, Unit 371 was a community for thousands of patients and families affected by HIV and AIDS and the people who cared for them. This graphic novel combines Czerwiec’s memories with the oral histories of patients, family members, and staff. It... View Details


Living a Healthy Life with HIV
by Allison Webel RN Ph.D (Author), Kate Lorig DrPH (Author), Diana Laurent MPH (Author), Virginia González MPH (Author), Allen L. Gifford MD (Author), David Sobel MD MPH (Author), Marian Minor PT PhD (Author)

Completely updated to the current care guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and elsewhere, this book addresses the current emphasis on managing medications for HIV treatment and many of the illnesses that commonly occur along with HIV. Combining the latest medical advice with the ideas of hundreds of people living with HIV, the book is helpful for adults living with HIV, and for friends, family members, and others who support anyone struggling with HIV. New additions to this edition include topics such as aging with HIV and coping with the emotions brought about by being a... View Details


HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
by Alan Whiteside (Author)

In 2008 it was believed that HIV/AIDS was without doubt the worst epidemic to hit humankind since the Black Death. The first case was identified in 1981; by 2004 it was estimated that about 40 million people were living with the disease, and about 20 million had died. Yet the outlook today is a little brighter. Although HIV/ AIDS continues to be a pressing public health issue the epidemic has stabilised globally, and it has become evident it is not, nor will it be, a global issue. The worst affected regions are southern and eastern Africa. Elsewhere, HIV is found in specific, usually,... View Details


HIV Pharmacotherapy: The Pharmacist's Role in Care & Treatment
by Jason J. Schafer (Author), Jennifer Cocohoba (Author), Elizabeth Sherman (Author), Alice Tseng (Author)

Pharmacists now have a new resource to help expand their HIV knowledge, guide their treatment, and provide comprehensive care. This book is the first of its kind to provide pharmacists with a consolidated resource for offering care to patients with HIV infection, including diagnosis, primary care, pharmacological management of co-infections, and more. This resource will help prepare pharmacists to take a lead role in the care and treatment of patients with HIV, and will be a valuable guide for students, residents, and clinical pharmacists to build expertise in tailoring antiretroviral... View Details


HIV: Challenges and Concerns
by Chris Stinson (Editor)

HIV and AIDS are diseases that currently have no cure. Therapies that slow down the effects of the disease as well as its progression into AIDS are proving to be very successful. Drugs that can combat HIV viruses are collectively called antiretroviral therapies. These can reduce the multiplication of the virus by blocking its mutation. The concept of “treatment as prevention” has also become a recommended practice to reduce cross-infection. The topics covered in this book offer the readers new insights in this field. It is a vital tool for all researching or studying HIV treatment and... View Details


Punishing Disease: HIV and the Criminalization of Sickness
by Trevor Hoppe (Author)

From the very beginning of the epidemic, AIDS was linked to punishment. Calls to punish people living with HIV—mostly stigmatized minorities—began before doctors had even settled on a name for the disease. Punishing Disease looks at how HIV was transformed from sickness to badness under the criminal law and investigates the consequences of inflicting penalties on people living with disease. Now that the door to criminalizing sickness is open, what other ailments will follow? With moves in state legislatures to extend HIV-specific criminal laws to include diseases such as hepatitis... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

The Person You Become
Over the course of our lives, we shed parts of our old selves, embrace new ones, and redefine who we are. This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the experiences that shape the person we become. Guests include aerobatics pilot and public speaker Janine Shepherd, writers Roxane Gay and Taiye Selasi, activist Jackson Bird, and fashion executive Kaustav Dey.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#479 Garden of Marvels (Rebroadcast)
This week we're learning about botany and the colorful science of gardening. Author Ruth Kassinger joins us to discuss her book "A Garden of Marvels: How We Discovered that Flowers Have Sex, Leaves Eat Air, and Other Secrets of the Way Plants Work." And we'll speak to NASA researcher Gioia Massa about her work to solve the technical challenges of gardening in space.