**Author**: Ibragimov,N.H

**Language**: English

**ISBN/ISSN**: 7040276039

**Published on:** 2009-01

Soft Cover

A Practical Course in Differential Equations and Mathematical Modelling is a unique blend of the traditional methods of ordinary and partial differential equations with Lie group analysis enriched by the author's own theoretical developments. The book -- which aims to present new mathematical curricula based on symmetry and invariance principles -- is tailored to develop analytic skills and "working knowledge" in both classical and Lie's methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. This approach helps to make courses in differential equations, mathematical modelling, distributions and fundamental solution, etc. easy to follow and interesting for students. The book is based on the author's extensive teaching experience at Novosibirsk and Moscow universities in Russia, College de France, Georgia Tech and Stanford University in the United States, universities in South Africa, Cyprus, Turkey, and Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) in Sweden. The new curriculum prepares students for solving modern nonlinear problems and will essentially be more appealing to students compared to the traditional way of teaching mathematics. The book can be used as a main textbook by undergraduate and graduate students and university lecturers in applied mathematics, physics and engineering. ...

Preface .

1 Selected topics from analysis

1.1 Elementary mathematics

1.1.1 Numbers, variables and elementary functions

1.1.2 Quadratic and cubic equations

1.1.3 Areas of similar figures. Ellipse as an example

1.1.4 Algebraic curves of the second degree

1.2 Differential and integral calculus

1.2.1 Rules for differentiation

1.2.2 The mean value theorem

1.2.3 Invariance of the differential

1.2.4 Rules for integration

1.2.5 The Taylor series

1.2.6 Complex variables

1.2.7 Approximate representation of functions

1.2.8 Jacobian. Functional independence. Change of variables in multiple integrals

1.2.9 Linear independence of functions. Wronskian

1.2.10 Integration by quadrature

1.2.11 Differential equations for families of curves

1.3 Vector analysis

.1.3.1 Vector algebra

1.3.2 Vector functions

1.3.3 Vector fields

1.3.4 Three classical integral theorems

1.3.5 The Laplace equation

1.3.6 Differentiation of determinants

1.4 Notation of differential algebra

1.4.1 Differential variables. Total differentiation

1.4.2 Higher derivatives of the product and of composite functions

1.4.3 Differential functions with several variables

1.4.4 The frame of differential equations

1.4.5 Transformation of derivatives

1.5 Variational calculus

1.5.1 Principle of least action

1.5.2 Euler-Lagrange equations with several variables

Problems to Chapter 1

2 Mathematical models

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Natural phenomena

2.2.1 Population models

2.2.2 Ecology: Radioactive waste products

2.2.3 Kepler's laws. Newton's gravitation law

2.2.4 Free fall of a body near the earth

2.2.5 Meteoroid

2.2.6 A model of rainfall

2.3 Physics and engineering sciences

2.3.1 Newton's model of cooling

2.3.2 Mechanical vibrations. Pendulum

2.3.3 Collapse of driving shafts

2.3.4 The van der Poi equation

2.3.5 Telegraph equation

2.3.6 Electrodynamics

2.3.7 The Dirac equation

2.3.8 Fluid dynamics

2.3.9 The Navier-Stokes equations

2.3.10 A model of an irrigation system

2.3.11 Magnetohydrodynamics

2.4 Diffusion phenomena

2.4.1 Linear heat equation

2.4.2 Nonlinear heat equation

2.4.3 The Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries equations

2.4.4 Mathematical modelling in finance

2.5 Biomathematics

2.5.1 Smart mushrooms

2.5.2 A tumour growth model

2.6 Wave phenomena

2.6.1 Small vibrations of a string

2.6.2 Vibrating membrane

2.6.3 Minimal surfaces

2.6.4 Vibrating slender rods and plates

2.6.5 Nonlinear waves

2.6.6 The Chaplygin and Tricomi equations

Problems to Chapter 2

3 Ordinary differential equations: Traditional approach

3.1 Introduction and elementary methods

3.1.1 Differential equations. Initial value problem

3.1.2 Integration of the equation y(n) = f(x)

3.1.3 Homogeneous equations

3.1.4 Different types of homogeneity

3.1.5 Reduction of order

3.1.6 Linearization through differentiation

3.2 First-order equations

3.2.1 Separable equations

3.2.2 Exact equations

3.2.3 Integrating factor (A. Clairaut, 1739)

3.2.4 The Riceati equation

3.2.5 The Bernoulli equation

3.2.6 Homogeneous linear equations

3.2.7 Non-homogeneous linear equations. Variation of the parameter

3.3 Second-order linear equations

3.3.1 Homogeneous equation: Superposition

3.3.2 Homogeneous equation: Equivalence properties

3.3.3 Homogeneous equation: Constant coefficients

3.3.4 Non-homogeneous equation: Variation of parameters

3.3.5 Bessel's equation and the Bessel functions

3.3.6 Hypergeometric equation

3.4 Higher-order linear equations

3.4.1 Homogeneous equations. Fundamental system

3.4.2 Non-homogeneous equations. Variation of parameters

3.4.3 Equations with constant coefficients

3.4.4 Euler's equation

3.5 Systems of first-order equations

3.5.1 General properties of systems

3.5.2 First integrals

3.5.3 Linear systems with constant coefficients ..

3.5.4 Variation of parameters for systems

Problems to Chapter 3

4 First-order partial differential equations

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Homogeneous linear equation

4.3 Particular solutions of non-homogeneous equations

4.4 Quasi-linear equations

4.5 Systems of homogeneous equations

Problems to Chapter 4

5 Linear partial differential equations of the second order

5.1 Equations with several variables

5.1.1 Classification at a fixed point

5.1.2 Adjoint linear differential operators

5.2 Classification of equations in two independent variables

5.2.1 Characteristics. Three types of equations

5.2.2 The standard form of the hyperbolic equations

5.2.3 The standard form of the parabolic equations

5.2.4 The standard form of the elliptic equations

5.2.5 Equations of a mixed type

5.2.6 The type of nonlinear equations

5.3 Integration of hyperbolic equations in two variables

5.3.1 d'Alembert's solution

5.3.2 Equations reducible to the wave equation

5.3.3 Euler's method

5.3.4 Laplace's cascade method

5.4 The initial value problem

5.4.1 The wave equation

5.4.2 Non-homogeneous wave equation

5.5 Mixed problem. Separation of variables

5.5.1 Vibration of a string tied at its ends

5.5.2 Mixed problem for the heat equation

Problems to Chapter 5

6 Nonlinear ordinary differential equations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Transformation groups

6.2.1 One-parameter groups on the plane

6.2.2 Group generator and the Lie equations

6.2.3 Exponential map

6.2.4 Invariants and invariant equations

6.2.5 Canonical variables

6.3 Symmetries of first-order equations

6.3.1 First prolongation of group generators

6.3.2 Symmetry group: definition and main property

6.3.3 Equations with a given symmetry

6.4 Integration of first-order equations using symmetries

6.4.1 Lie's integrating factor

6.4.2 Integration using canonical variables

6.4.3 Invariant solutions

6.4.4 General solution provided by invariant solutions

6.5 Second-order equations

6.5.1 Second prolongation of group generators. Calculation of symmetries

6.5.2 Lie algebras

6.5.3 Standard forms of two-dimensional Lie algebras

6.5.4 Lie's integration method

6.5.5 Integration of linear equations with a known particular solution

6.5.6 Lie's linearization test

6.6 Higher-order equations

6.6.1 Invariant solutions. Derivation of Euler's ansatz

6.6.2 Integrating factor (N.H. Ibragimov, 2006)

6.6.3 Linearization of third-order equations

6.7 Nonlinear superposition

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Main theorem on nonlinear superposition

6.7.3 Examples of nonlinear superposition

6.7.4 Integration of systems using nonlinear superposition

Problems to Chapter 6

7 Nonlinear partial differential equations

7.1 Symmetries

7.1.1 Definition and calculation of symmetry groups

7.1.2 Group transformations of solutions

7.2 Group invariant solutions

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 The Burgers equation

7.2.3 A nonlinear boundary-value problem

7.2.4 Invariant solutions for an irrigation system

7.2.5 Invariant solutions for a tumour growth model

7.2.6 An example from nonlinear optics

7.3 Invariance and conservation laws

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Preliminaries

7.3.3 Noether's theorem

7.3.4 Higher-order Lagrangians

7.3.5 Conservation theorems for ODEs

7.3.6 Generalization of Noether's theorem

7.3.7 Examples from classical mechanics

7.3.8 Derivation of Einstein's formula for energy

7.3.9 Conservation laws for the Dirac equations

Problems to Chapter 7

8 Generalized functions or distributions

8.1 Introduction of generalized functions

8.1.1 Heuristic considerations

8.1.2 Definition and examples of distributions

8.1.3 Representations of the δ-function as a limit

8.2 Operations with distributions

8.2.1 Multiplication by a function

8.2.2 Differentiation

8.2.3 Direct product of distributions

8.2.4 Convolution

8.3 The distribution

8.3.1 The mean value over the sphere

8.3.2 Solution of the Laplace equation

8.3.3 Evaluation of the distribution

8.4 Transformations of distributions

8.4.1 Motivation by linear transformations

8.4.2 Change of variables in the 5-function

8.4.3 Arbitrary group transformations

8.4.4 Infinitesimal transformation of distributions

Problems to Chapter 8

9 Invariance principle and fundamental solutions

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The invariance principle

9.2.1 Formulation of the invariance principle

9.2.2 Fundamental solution of linear equations with constant coefficients

9.2.3 Application to the Laplace equation

9.2.4 Application to the heat equation

9.3 Cauchy's problem for the heat equation

9.3.1 Fundamental solution for the Cauchy problem

9.3.2 Derivation of the fundamental solution for the Cauchy problem from the invariance principle

9.3.3 Solution of the Cauchy problem

9.4 Wave equation

9.4.1 Preliminaries on differential forms

9.4.2 Auxiliary equations with distributions

9.4.3 Symmetries and definition of fundamental solutions for the wave equation

9.4.4 Derivation of the fundamental solution

9.4.5 Solution of the Cauchy problem

9.5 Equations with variable coefficients

Problems to Chapter 9

Answers

Bibliography

Index ...