Nav: Home

Improvements in control of cardiovascular risk factors not seen at all socioeconomic levels in US

June 07, 2017

Between 1999 to 2014, there was a decline in average systolic blood pressure, smoking, and predicted cardiovascular risk of 20 percent or greater among high-income U.S. adults, but these levels remained unchanged in adults with incomes at or below the federal poverty level, according to a study published by JAMA Cardiology.

Large improvements in the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been achieved in the United States, but it remains unclear whether adults in all socioeconomic levels have benefited equally. Ayodele Odutayo, M.D., of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, and University of Oxford, England, and colleagues conducted a study using data on adults 40 to 79 years of age (n = 17,199) without established cardiovascular disease from the 1999 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Socioeconomic status was based on the family income to poverty ratio and participants were divided into groups of either high income, middle income, or at or below the federal poverty level.

The researchers found that for adults with incomes at or below the federal poverty level, there was little evidence of a change in these outcomes across survey years: percentage with predicted absolute cardiovascular risk of 20 percent or more, 14.9 percent in 1999-2004, 16.5 percent in 2011-2014; average systolic blood pressure, 127.6 mm Hg in 1999-2004, 126.8 mm Hg in 2011-2014; and smoking, 36.5 percent in 1999-2004, 36 percent in 2011-2014. For adults in the high-income group, these measures decreased across survey years: cardiovascular risk 20 percent or greater, 12 percent in 1999-2004, 9.5 percent in 2011-2014; systolic blood pressure, 126 mm Hg in 1999-2004, 122.3 mm Hg in 2011-2014; and smoking, 14.1 percent in 1999-2004, 8.8 percent in 2011-2014. Trends in the percentage of adults with diabetes and the average total cholesterol level did not vary by income.

Limitations of the study include that the researchers performed an analysis of multiple cross-sectional surveys and cannot establish a causal association between income and cardiovascular risk factors.

"Taken together, recent gains in the control of cardiovascular risk factors in the United States have not benefited adults in all socioeconomic strata equally. Renewed efforts are required to reduce income disparities in control of cardiovascular risk factors," the authors write.
For more details and to read the full study, please visit the For The Media website.


Editor's Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

The JAMA Network Journals

Related Smoking Articles:

A case where smoking helped
A mutation in the hemoglobin of a young woman in Germany was found to cause her mild anemia.
No safe level of smoking
People who consistently smoked an average of less than one cigarette per day over their lifetime had a 64 percent higher risk of earlier death than people who never smoked.
Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy go back to smoking soon after baby is born
A major new review published today by the scientific journal Addiction reveals that in studies testing the effectiveness of stop-smoking support for pregnant women, nearly half (43 percent) of the women who managed to stay off cigarettes during the pregnancy went back to smoking within six months of the birth.
If you want to quit smoking, do it now
Smokers who try to cut down the amount they smoke before stopping are less likely to quit than those who choose to quit all in one go, Oxford University researchers have found.
Cochrane news: Have national smoking bans worked in reducing harms in passive smoking?
The most robust evidence yet, published today in the Cochrane Library, suggests that national smoking legislation does reduce the harms of passive smoking, and particularly risks from heart disease.
Advocating for raising the smoking age to 21
Henry Ford Hospital pulmonologist Daniel Ouellette, M.D., who during his 31-year career in medicine has seen the harmful effects of smoking on his patients, advocates for raising the smoking age to 21.
Stress main cause of smoking after childbirth
Mothers who quit smoking in pregnancy are more likely to light up again after their baby is born if they feel stressed.
As smoking declines, more are likely to quit
Smokeless tobacco and, more recently, e-cigarettes have been promoted as a harm reduction strategy for smokers who are 'unable or unwilling to quit.' The strategy, embraced by both industry and some public health advocates, is based on the assumption that as smoking declines overall, only those who cannot quit will remain.
Smoking around your toddler could be just as bad as smoking while pregnant
Children whose parents smoked when they were toddlers are likely to have a wider waist and a higher BMI by time they reach ten years of age, reveal researchers at the University of Montreal and its affiliated CHU Sainte Justine Research Centre.
Smoking and angioplasty: Not a good combination
Quitting smoking when you have angioplasty is associated with better quality of life and less chest pain.

Related Smoking Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#532 A Class Conversation
This week we take a look at the sociology of class. What factors create and impact class? How do we try and study it? How does class play out differently in different countries like the US and the UK? How does it impact the political system? We talk with Daniel Laurison, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Swarthmore College and coauthor of the book "The Class Ceiling: Why it Pays to be Privileged", about class and its impacts on people and our systems.