Nav: Home

Cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions in South Africa

June 08, 2017

An international African collaboration has turned to statistical analysis to determine the cost effectiveness of major HIV/AIDS interventions in South Africa with a view to advising policy makers on the optimal approach to managing the disease. Details are reported this month in the International Journal of Economics and Business Research.

Josue Mbonigaba of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, in Durban, South Africa, working with Saidou Baba Oumar of The University of Bamenda, in Bambili, and the University of Buea, both in Cameroon point out that a shortage of resources in South Africa to address the high burden of HIV/AIDS requires that different strategies must be adopted in rural and urban regions. The team explains that despite major advances in coping with AIDS elsewhere in the world, South Africa continues to suffer the burden of this devastating disease with many millions living with HIV/AIDS (ca 5.51 million in 2015). The high prevalence is a consequence of an exponential increase in infections through the late 1990s and early 2000s, which the team attributes to the slow response of the government to the crisis.

The team has used Markov state transition models, the spectrum policy modeling system and sensitivity analysis to estimate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of different interventions. The interventions discussed are: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the virus, use of highly active antiretroviral drugs in adults and in children.

They have found that running HIV/AIDS interventions and expecting to achieve the same cost effectiveness across both rural and urban areas is erroneous. They point out that, factors affecting cost effectiveness, such as earlier or increased access to interventions have more significant influence in rural areas than they do in urban areas. "This result is crucial for South African policymakers, who have been seeking to address the dichotomy between rural and urban areas," the team reports. "Factors linking earlier access and usage of interventions include stigmatization and other cultural factors." As such, these issues must be addressed if interventions are to have the deepest impact and bring South Africa out of this medical crisis sooner rather than later.
Mbonigaba, J. and Oumar, S.B. (2017) 'The cost-effectiveness of major HIV/AIDS interventions in rural and urban areas in South Africa', Int. J. Economics and Business Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.413-434.

Inderscience Publishers

Related Disease Articles:

Findings support role of vascular disease in development of Alzheimer's disease
Among adults who entered a study more than 25 years ago, an increasing number of midlife vascular risk factors, such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and smoking, were associated with elevated levels of brain amyloid (protein fragments linked to Alzheimer's disease) later in life, according to a study published by JAMA.
Dietary factors associated with substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and disease
Nearly half of all deaths due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the US in 2012 were associated with suboptimal consumption of certain dietary factors, according to a study appearing in the March 7 issue of JAMA.
Study links changes in oral microbiome with metabolic disease/risk for dental disease
A team of scientists from The Forsyth Institute and the Dasman Diabetes Institute in Kuwait have found that metabolic diseases, which are characterized by high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and obesity -- leads to changes in oral bacteria and puts people with the disease at a greater risk for poor oral health.
Fatty liver disease contributes to cardiovascular disease and vice versa
For the first time, researchers have shown that a bi-directional relationship exists between fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease.
Seroprevalence and disease burden of chagas disease in south Texas
A paper published in PLOS Neglected Diseases led by researchers at the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine suggests that the disease burden in southern Texas is much higher than previously thought.
Maternal chronic disease linked to higher rates of congenital heart disease in babies
Pregnant women with congenital heart defects or type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of giving birth to babies with severe congenital heart disease and should be monitored closely in the prenatal period, according to a study published in CMAJ.
Citrus fruits could help prevent obesity-related heart disease, liver disease, diabetes
Oranges and other citrus fruits are good for you -- they contain plenty of vitamins and substances, such as antioxidants, that can help keep you healthy.
Gallstone disease may increase heart disease risk
A history of gallstone disease was linked to a 23 percent increased risk of developing coronary heart disease.
New disease gene will lead to better screening for pediatric heart disease
Cardiomyopathy, or a deterioration of the ability of the heart muscle to contract, generally leads to progressive heart failure.
Early weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients may signify more serious form of disease
A study led by a Massachusetts General Hospital investigator finds evidence of an association between weight loss in patients with early Parkinson's disease and more rapid disease progression.

Related Disease Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#532 A Class Conversation
This week we take a look at the sociology of class. What factors create and impact class? How do we try and study it? How does class play out differently in different countries like the US and the UK? How does it impact the political system? We talk with Daniel Laurison, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Swarthmore College and coauthor of the book "The Class Ceiling: Why it Pays to be Privileged", about class and its impacts on people and our systems.