Nav: Home

Nerve-insulating cells more diverse than previously thought

June 09, 2016

Oligodendrocytes, a type of brain cell that plays a crucial role in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, are more diverse than have previously been thought, according to a new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. The findings, published in the journal Science, will help increase our understanding of diseases in which these cells are affected and possibly provide clues to future treatment strategies.

In multiple sclerosis and similar neurological diseases, the electrical signals in the brain propagate more slowly. The reduced speed of information flow contributes to symptoms such as numbness, balance and walking difficulties and blurred vision. Multiple sclerosis is characterised by the loss of myelin, a protective sheath that insulates nerve cells and allows rapid transmission of electrical signals in the brain. Myelin is produced by a specialized cell type, the oligodendrocyte. While oligodendrocytes have thus far been thought to be a homogenous population, a different view emerges from the current study.

The researchers, led by Dr. Gonçalo Castelo-Branco and Dr. Sten Linnarsson, used the recently developed technique of single cell RNA-sequencing. This method allows investigators to get a snapshot of gene activity in individual cells. In this way, they could reveal differences between cells that may not be visible using classical methods. The researchers analysed more than five thousand oligodendrocytes from several regions of the brain and spinal cord in adolescent and adult mice, which allowed them to see the diversity of these cells with unprecedented detail and clarity.

"We uncovered an unexpected diversity within the oligodendrocyte population", says Sten Linnarsson from the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. "In this study, we have identified 12 subclasses of oligodendrocytes and a novel cell distinct from oligodendrocytes residing in the blood vessels"

They found that the initial stages of maturation in oligodendrocyte development were similar across the central nerve system in juvenile mice, whereas different subsets of mature oligodendrocytes were enriched in specific regions in adult brains.

"The uncovering of this unexpected oligodendrocyte diversity might bring new insights on mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of diseases where myelin is lost, such as multiple sclerosis", says Gonçalo Castelo-Branco at the same department.
-end-
The research has been supported by, among others, the Swedish Research Council, Swedish Brain Foundation (Hjärnfonden), Swedish Society of Medicine (SLS), Åke Wiberg, Clas Groschinsky, Petrus och Augusta Hedlunds foundations and European Union.

Publication: 'Oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in the mouse juvenile and adult central nervous system', Sueli Marques, Amit Zeisel, Simone Codeluppi, David van Bruggen, Ana Mendanha, Falcão, Lin Xiao, Huiliang Li, Martin Häring, Hannah Hochgerner, Roman A. Romanov, Daniel Gyllborg, Ana Muñoz Manchado, Gioele La Manno, Peter Lönnerberg, Elisa M. Floriddia, Fatemah Rezayee, Patrik Ernfors, Ernest Arenas, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Tibor Harkany, William D. Richardson, Sten Linnarsson, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco, Science, published online 10th of June 2016, doi 10.1126/science.aaf6463.

Karolinska Institutet - a medical university: ki.se/english

Karolinska Institutet

Related Multiple Sclerosis Articles:

Not all multiple sclerosis-like diseases are alike
Scientists say some myelin-damaging disorders have a distinctive pathology that groups them into a unique disease entity.
New therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis in sight
Strategies for treating multiple sclerosis have so far focused primarily on T and B cells.
Diet has an impact on the multiple sclerosis disease course
The short-chain fatty acid propionic acid influences the intestine-mediated immune regulation in people with multiple sclerosis (MS).
The gut may be involved in the development of multiple sclerosis
It is incompletely understood which factors in patients with multiple sclerosis act as a trigger for the immune system to attack the brain and spinal cord.
Slowing the progression of multiple sclerosis
Over 77,000 Canadians are living with multiple sclerosis, a disease whose causes still remain unknown.
7T MRI offers new insights into multiple sclerosis
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have completed a new study using 7 Tesla (7T) MRI -- a far more powerful imaging technology -- to further examine LME in MS patients
AAN issues guideline on vaccines and multiple sclerosis
Can a person with multiple sclerosis (MS) get regular vaccines?
How to improve multiple sclerosis therapy
Medications currently used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) can merely reduce relapses during the initial relapsing-remitting phase.
Vaccinations not a risk factor for multiple sclerosis
Data from over 12,000 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients formed the basis of a study by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) which investigated the population's vaccination behavior in relation to MS.
Obesity worsens disability in multiple sclerosis
Obesity is an aggravating factor in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the most common form of the disease.
More Multiple Sclerosis News and Multiple Sclerosis Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Processing The Pandemic
Between the pandemic and America's reckoning with racism and police brutality, many of us are anxious, angry, and depressed. This hour, TED Fellow and writer Laurel Braitman helps us process it all.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#568 Poker Face Psychology
Anyone who's seen pop culture depictions of poker might think statistics and math is the only way to get ahead. But no, there's psychology too. Author Maria Konnikova took her Ph.D. in psychology to the poker table, and turned out to be good. So good, she went pro in poker, and learned all about her own biases on the way. We're talking about her new book "The Biggest Bluff: How I Learned to Pay Attention, Master Myself, and Win".
Now Playing: Radiolab

Invisible Allies
As scientists have been scrambling to find new and better ways to treat covid-19, they've come across some unexpected allies. Invisible and primordial, these protectors have been with us all along. And they just might help us to better weather this viral storm. To kick things off, we travel through time from a homeless shelter to a military hospital, pondering the pandemic-fighting power of the sun. And then, we dive deep into the periodic table to look at how a simple element might actually be a microbe's biggest foe. This episode was reported by Simon Adler and Molly Webster, and produced by Annie McEwen and Pat Walters. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.