Risk of stroke may more than double for African Americans who smoke

June 10, 2020

DALLAS, June 10, 2020 -- Current cigarette smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day are associated with more than twice the risk for all stroke - ischemic and hemorrhagic - among African Americans compared to nonsmokers, according to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access journal of the American Heart Association.

In a study investigating the relationship between cigarette smoking and stroke among African Americans, researchers reviewed more than a decade of data from participants in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). JHS is the largest study in the U.S. assessing cardiovascular risk factors among African Americans.

"Smoking increases the risk of developing stroke among African Americans, and that risk becomes higher as the number of cigarettes smoked per day increases. The more you smoke, the more you stroke," said Adebamike Oshunbade, M.D., M.P.H., lead study author and post-doctoral research fellow at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi, and fellow of the American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center.

This study included 5,306 participants ages 21 to 84 who were recruited from the tri-county area surrounding Jackson, Mississippi. They were evaluated at baseline from 2000 to 2004 and completed two subsequent follow-up visits: in 2005 to 2008 and 2009 to 2013. For the final analysis, there were 546 current smokers, 781 past smokers and 3,083 never smokers. During follow-up, 183 participants suffered strokes.

Researchers found:

The risk for stroke was 2.5 times higher for current smokers compared with never smokers. No significant difference was found between past and never smokers.

Dose-dependent increases in the risk of stroke from smoke intensity was reported at 2.3 times and 2.8 times greater for current smokers smoking 1-19 cigarettes per day and more than 20 cigarettes per day, respectively.

"We also assessed the extent of fatty plaque build-up in the carotid arteries of African American smokers by a non-invasive procedure called carotid intima media thickness. We found accelerated build-up of fatty plaques in some of the major blood vessels of the brains of smokers, which could play a role in the development of stroke among African Americans," Oshunbade said.

Oshunbade noted the study results should strengthen calls to action for African Americans, public health officials and the tobacco industry. "Our findings support public health initiatives directed toward smoking cessation, especially among vulnerable groups like African Americans. This is particularly important because these populations have been targeted by tobacco companies.

"More public enlightenment campaigns should be geared toward warning African Americans about the modifiable risk of developing stroke from cigarette smoking," Oshunbade concluded.
Co-authors are Wondwosen K. Yimer, Ph.D.; Karen A. Valle, M.Sc.; Donald Clark III, M.D., M.P.H.; Daisuke Kamimura, M.D., Ph.D.; Wendy B. White, Ph.D.; Andrew P. DeFilippis, M.D., M.Sc.; Michael J. Blaha, M.D., M.P.H.; Emelia J. Benjamin, M.D., Sc.M.; Emily C. O'Brien, Ph.D.; Robert J. Mentz M.D.; Ervin R. Fox, M.D., M.P.H.; Charles S. O'Mara, M.D., M.B.A.; Javed Butler, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.; Adolfo Correa, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D.; and Michael E. Hall, M.D., M.S.

The Jackson Heart Study, Tougaloo College, the Mississippi State Department of Health and the University of Mississippi Medical Center, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health funded the study. Dr. Hall also has received support from the National Institutes of Health.

Additional Resources:

Available multimedia is on right column of release link - https://newsroom.heart.org/news/risk-of-stroke-may-more-than-double-for-african-americans-who-smoke?preview=468d0af5354fdce2d987c10b17fdf7e0

Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the Association's policy or position. The Association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The Association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific Association programs and events. The Association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations and health insurance providers are available at https://www.heart.org/en/about-us/aha-financial-information.

About the American Heart Association

The American Heart Association is a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives. We are dedicated to ensuring equitable health in all communities. Through collaboration with numerous organizations, and powered by millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for the public's health and share lifesaving resources. The Dallas-based organization has been a leading source of health information for nearly a century. Connect with us on heart.org, Facebook, Twitter or by calling 1-800-AHA-USA1.

American Heart Association

Related Stroke Articles from Brightsurf:

Stroke alarm clock may streamline and accelerate time-sensitive acute stroke care
An interactive, digital alarm clock may speed emergency stroke care, starting at hospital arrival and through each step of the time-sensitive treatment process.

Stroke patients with COVID-19 have increased inflammation, stroke severity and death
Stroke patients who also have COVID-19 showed increased systemic inflammation, a more serious stroke severity and a much higher rate of death, compared to stroke patients who did not have COVID-19, according a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 60 ischemic stroke patients admitted to UAB Hospital between late March and early May 2020.

'Time is vision' after a stroke
University of Rochester researchers studied stroke patients who experienced vision loss and found that the patients retained some visual abilities immediately after the stroke but these abilities diminished gradually and eventually disappeared permanently after approximately six months.

More stroke awareness, better eating habits may help reduce stroke risk for young adult African-Americans
Young African-Americans are experiencing higher rates of stroke because of health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity, yet their perception of their stroke risk is low.

How to help patients recover after a stroke
The existing approach to brain stimulation for rehabilitation after a stroke does not take into account the diversity of lesions and the individual characteristics of patients' brains.

Kids with headache after stroke might be at risk for another stroke
A new study has found a high incidence of headaches in pediatric stroke survivors and identified a possible association between post-stroke headache and stroke recurrence.

High stroke impact in low- and middle-income countries examined at 11th World Stroke Congress
Less wealthy countries struggle to meet greater need with far fewer resources.

Marijuana use might lead to higher risk of stroke, World Stroke Congress to be told
A five-year study of hospital statistics from the United States shows that the incidence of stroke has risen steadily among marijuana users even though the overall rate of stroke remained constant over the same period.

We need to talk about sexuality after stroke
Stroke survivors and their partners are not adequately supported to deal with changes to their relationships, self-identity, gender roles and intimacy following stroke, according to new research from the University of Sydney.

Standardized stroke protocol can ensure ELVO stroke patients are treated within 60 minutes
A new study shows that developing a standardized stroke protocol of having neurointerventional teams meet suspected emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) stroke patients upon their arrival at the hospital achieves a median door-to-recanalization time of less than 60 minutes.

Read More: Stroke News and Stroke Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.