Chemists perform surgery on nanoparticlesJune 12, 2017
A team of chemists led by Carnegie Mellon University's Rongchao Jin has for the first time conducted site-specific surgery on a nanoparticle. The procedure, which allows for the precise tailoring of nanoparticles, stands to advance the field of nanochemistry.
The surgical technique developed by Qi Li, the study's lead author and a 3rd year graduate student in the Jin group, will allow researchers to enhance nanoparticles' functional properties, such as catalytic activity and photoluminescence, increasing their usefulness in a wide variety of fields including health care, electronics and manufacturing. The findings were published in Science Advances.
"Nanochemistry is a relatively new field, it's only about 20 years old. We've been racing to catch up to fields like organic chemistry that are more than 100 years old," said Jin, a chemistry professor in the Mellon College of Science. "Organic chemists have been able to tailor the functional groups of molecules for quite some time, like tailoring penicillin for better medical functions, for example. We dreamed that we could do something similar in nanoscience. Developing atomically precise nanoparticles has allowed us to make this dream come true."
In order to make this "nano-surgery" a reality, researchers needed to begin with atomically precise nanoparticles that could be reliably produced time after time. Jin's lab has been at the forefront of this research. Working with gold nanoparticles, he and his team have developed methods to precisely control the number of atoms in each nanoparticle, resulting in uniformly-sized nanoparticles with every batch. With reliably precise particles, Jin and colleagues were able to identify the particles' structures, and begin to tease out how that structure impacted the particles' properties and functionality.
With these well-defined nanoparticles in hand, Jin's next step was to find a way to surgically tailor the particles in order to learn more about - and hopefully enhance - their functionality.
In their recent study, Jin and colleagues performed nano-surgery on a gold nanoparticle made up of 23 gold atoms surrounded by a protective surface of ligands in staple-like motifs. Using a two-step metal exchange method, they removed two S-Au-S staples from the particle's surface. In doing this they revealed the structural factors that determine the particle's optical properties and established the role that the surface plays in photoluminescence. Significantly, the surgery increased the particle's photoluminescence by about 10-fold. Photoluminescence plays a critical role in biological imaging, cancer diagnosis and LED technology, among other applications.
Jin and coworkers are now trying to generalize this site-specific surgery method to other nanoparticles.
The research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the National Science Foundation (1247842).
Carnegie Mellon University
Related Nanoparticles Articles:
A team of chemists led by Carnegie Mellon's Rongchao Jin has for the first time conducted site-specific surgery on a nanoparticle.
The way that nanoparticles behave in the environment is extremely complex.
KAUST researchers reveal how small organic 'citrate' ions can stabilize gold nanoparticles, assisting research on the structures' potential.
Twenty-five years have passed since the publication of the first work on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as a system for delivering drugs.
In shampoo ads, hair always looks like a shiny, smooth surface.
Scientists at the University of Basel have developed nanoparticles which can serve as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
Cancer treatments based on laser irridation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumor are working and can destroy the cancer from within.
Zap a tumor with radiation to trigger expression of a molecule, then attack that molecule with a drug-loaded nanoparticle.
Use of nanoparticles in many applications, e.g. for catalysis, relies on the surface area of the particles.
Scientists have devised a triple-stage 'cluster bomb' system for delivering the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, via tiny nanoparticles designed to break up when they reach a tumor.
Related Nanoparticles Reading:
Nanoparticles: From Theory to Application
by GÃ¼nter Schmid (Editor)
Very small particles are able to show astonishing properties. For example, gold atoms can be combined like strings of pearls, while nanoparticles can form one-, two- and three-dimensional layers. These assemblies can be used, for instance, as semiconductors, but other electronic as well as optical properties are possible.
An introduction to the booming field of "nanoworld" or "nanoscience", from fundamental principles to their use in novel applications.
With its clear structure and comprehensive coverage, backed by numerous examples from recent literature, this is a prime reference... View Details
Nanoparticles - Nanocomposites Â– Nanomaterials: An Introduction for Beginners
by Dieter Vollath (Author)
Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details.
The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical,... View Details
Nanoparticle Superheroes Defeat Evil Microbes
by Anna Rutkowski (Author)
Anna Rutkowski, a senior at Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic, partnered with Dr. Teri Dankovich of Folia Water. She wants to inspire kids with the VERY inspiring story of Dr. Teri's wonderful paper that makes polluted water drinkable for, potentially, millions of children and families around the world. Read, be inspired, and help save a life. View Details
Optical Properties of Nanoparticle Systems: Mie and Beyond
by Michael Quinten (Author)
Filling the gap for a description of the optical properties of small particles with sizes less than 1000 nm and to provide a comprehensive overview on the spectral behavior of nanoparticulate matter, this is the most up-to-date reference on the optical physics of nanoparticle systems. The author, an expert in the field with both academic and industrial experience, concentrates on the linear optical properties, elastic light scattering and absorption of single nanoparticles and on reflectance and transmittance of nanoparticle matter. View Details
Inorganic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Applications, and Perspectives (Nanomaterials and their Applications)
by Claudia Altavilla (Editor), Enrico Ciliberto (Editor)
Among the various nanomaterials, inorganic nanoparticles are extremely important in modern technologies. They can be easily and cheaply synthesized and mass produced, and for this reason, they can also be more readily integrated into applications. Inorganic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Applications, and Perspectives presents an overview of these special materials and explores the myriad ways in which they are used. It addresses a wide range of topics, including:
Application of nanoparticles in magnetic storage media
Use of metal and oxide... View Details
Colloidal ZnS Nanoparticles: Exploring the Role of Surfactants: Synthesis, Growth, Stability and Photoluminescence Properties
by SANJAY KUMAR (Author), S. K. Mehta (Author)
Preparation and characterization of semiconductor materials consisting of particles with dimensions in nanometers scale has gained tremendous attention. The surface coating of particles with surfactants to prevent unlimited growth of Nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively explored as a simple, effective and economical method. In this book, the role of surfactants in stabilization and altering the properties of ZnS NPs synthesized using chemical precipitation in aqueous medium has been discussed in detail. Broadly, a series of cationic and anionic surfactants have been investigated to... View Details
Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Effect of the DC Oblique field
by Bachir Ouari (Author), Malika Madani (Author), Sid Ahmed Difi (Author)
The thermal fluctuations and relaxation of the magnetization of single domain ferromagnetic particles currently merit attention in view of their importance in the context of magnetic recording of media and rock magnetism, as well as in connection with the observation of magnetization reversal in isolated ferromagnetic nanoparticles and nanowires. The instability of the magnetization due to thermal agitation results in superparamagnetism because each fine particle behaves like an enormous paramagnetic atom having a magnetic moment ~104 - 105 Bohr magnetons. The pioneering theory of thermal... View Details
Antibacterial Study of Metal Nanoparticles: Silver, Copper and Zinc Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
by Rohit Srivastava (Author), Devendra Kumar (Author)
This book initiates based on the idea that breakthroughs in nanotechnology require a firm grounding in the principles of nanochemistry. Nanotechnology and nanoscience broadly deals with science and technology of materials on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometers. Metal nanoparticles, of either simple or composite nature, play an important and unique physical and chemical properties and represent an increasingly important material in the development of novel nano devices which can be used in numerous physical, biological, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.... View Details
Nanoparticles Synthesis, Stabillization, Passivation and Functionalization (ACS Symposium Series)
by Ramanathan Nagarajan (Editor), T. Alan Hatton (Editor)
Recent advances in the synthesis, stabilization, passivation and functionalization of a wide range of metal, metal oxide, semiconductor and other inorganic, polymer, organic, carbon and biological nanoparticles are reported in this book. Diverse shapes of nanoparticles are discussed here including spheres, cubes, nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanocapsules, and nanopyramids. In the section on metals, one can find description of colloidal and wet chemical approaches to synthesize nanoparticles, methods to control number of functional groups and to attain aqueous dispersibility, impact of... View Details
Nanoparticle Technology Handbook, Second Edition
by Makio Naito (Editor), Masuo Hosokawa (Editor), Toyokazu Yokoyama (Editor), Kiyoshi Nogi (Editor)
The updated and expanded second edition of the Nanoparticle Technology Handbook is an authoritative reference providing both the theory behind nanoparticles and the practical applications of nanotechnology. The second edition is thoroughly updated and expanded with sixteen new chapters, providing a reference much broader in scope than the previous edition. Over 140 experts in nanotechnology and/or particle technology contributed to this new edition.
Nanoparticle technology is a new and revolutionary technology, which is increasingly being used in electronic devices... View Details