Nav: Home

Identifying underlying causes of immune deficiencies that increase shingles risk

June 12, 2017

Early life infections with varicella zoster virus cause chickenpox, but the virus can remain dormant in the nervous system for decades and reactivate to cause herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles. Shingles is characterized by a painful skin rash and blisters, and it predominantly affects the elderly. Shingles also occurs at a higher rate in people diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects immune system function in part through changes in infection-responsive immune cells called macrophages. The specific immune mechanisms underlying age- and CAD-related viral reactivation are not well understood.

This week in the JCI, a study led by Cornelia Weyand at Stanford University reports that macrophages derived from individuals diagnosed with CAD suppress the activation and proliferation of T cells. Excessive accumulation of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate in these macrophages increased expression of a signaling molecule called PD-L1 that drives T cell suppression. The overabundance of pyruvate in macrophages suggests that metabolic dysregulation may contribute to immune dysfunction in individuals affected by CAD.

The activity of this immunosuppressive pathway in CAD patients provides insights into a mechanism for immune deficiencies that permit reactivation of long-latent viruses. These findings are a step toward developing new strategies that correct metabolic dysregulation in immune cells to prevent shingles and other infections in at-risk populations.
-end-
TITLE: Pyruvate controls the checkpoint inhibitor PD-L1 and suppresses T-cell immunity

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Cornelia M. Weyand
Stanford University
cweyand@stanford.edu

View this article at:http://www.jci.org/articles/view/92167?key=0ecc7263974ffa6d0086

JCI Journals

Related Immune Cells Articles:

Nutrient deficiency in tumor cells attracts cells that suppress the immune system
A study led by IDIBELL researchers and published this week in the American journal PNAS shows that, by depriving tumor cells of glucose, they release a large number of signaling molecules.
Experience matters for immune cells
The discovery that immune T cells have a spectrum of responsiveness could shed light on how our immune system responds to infections and cancer, and what goes wrong in immune diseases.
Immune cells against Alzheimer's?
German researchers have developed a novel, experimental approach against Alzheimer's.
Arming the body's immune cells
Researchers at UC have discovered a previously unknown mechanism that could explain the reason behind decreased immune function in cancer patients and could be a new therapeutic target for immunotherapy for those with head and neck cancers.
Drug that keeps surface receptors on cancer cells makes them more visible to immune cells
A drug that is already clinically available for the treatment of nausea and psychosis, called prochlorperazine (PCZ), inhibits the internalization of receptors on the surface of tumor cells, thereby increasing the ability of anticancer antibodies to bind to the receptors and mount more effective immune responses.
How an immune system regulator shifts the balance of immune cells
Researchers have provided new insight on the role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in regulating the immune response.
How the immune system becomes blind to cancer cells
Researchers have described the activation of a key protein used by tumor cells to stop the body's immune response.
What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?
White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne.
How self-reactive immune cells are allowed to develop
A research team at Lund University in Sweden has found the mechanism that controls the growth of B1-cells in mice.
Identification of new populations of immune cells in the lungs
In an article published in Nature Communications, the Immunophysiology Laboratory of the GIGA Institute, headed by Prof.
More Immune Cells News and Immune Cells Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: Reinvention
Change is hard, but it's also an opportunity to discover and reimagine what you thought you knew. From our economy, to music, to even ourselves–this hour TED speakers explore the power of reinvention. Guests include OK Go lead singer Damian Kulash Jr., former college gymnastics coach Valorie Kondos Field, Stockton Mayor Michael Tubbs, and entrepreneur Nick Hanauer.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#562 Superbug to Bedside
By now we're all good and scared about antibiotic resistance, one of the many things coming to get us all. But there's good news, sort of. News antibiotics are coming out! How do they get tested? What does that kind of a trial look like and how does it happen? Host Bethany Brookeshire talks with Matt McCarthy, author of "Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic", about the ins and outs of testing a new antibiotic in the hospital.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dispatch 6: Strange Times
Covid has disrupted the most basic routines of our days and nights. But in the middle of a conversation about how to fight the virus, we find a place impervious to the stalled plans and frenetic demands of the outside world. It's a very different kind of front line, where urgent work means moving slow, and time is marked out in tiny pre-planned steps. Then, on a walk through the woods, we consider how the tempo of our lives affects our minds and discover how the beats of biology shape our bodies. This episode was produced with help from Molly Webster and Tracie Hunte. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.