Nav: Home

New discovery about the brain's water system may prove beneficial in stroke

June 14, 2018

The brain rests in a fluid, which among other things protects it from concussions. Scientists have known this for centuries. Every day around half a litre of water is transported from the blood to the brain through a thin tissue called plexus choroideus. But exactly how this is done has so far been quite a mystery.

In a new study published in Nature Communications researchers at the University of Copenhagen have proven for the first time on mice models that the transport is not controlled by osmosis, as many used to believe. Instead water is primarily transported to the brain via a so-called co-transporter, which moves a certain amount of water when ions are transported across the tissue plexus choroideus.

'It is brand new knowledge on a very important physiological process involving the by far most complex organ in the human body, namely the brain. If we are able to target this ion and water transporter with medicine, it would affect a number of disorders involving increased intracranial pressure, including brain haemorrhage, blood clots in the brain and hydrocephalus', says Associate Professor at the Department of Neuroscience Nanna MacAulay.

Severe Consequences of Increased Pressure

The researchers have examined the tissue plexus choroideus in mice and tested whether water can be moved through the tissue even though the conditions required for osmotic water transport are missing. This turned out to be the case; a different process thus had to be responsible for the water transport.

They then did tests on live mice to see how fast brain fluid is produced when possible water transporters are inhibited. This revealed that the co-transporter in question is responsible for half of all fluid production for the brain cavity and is thus the main water transporter in this tissue.

'Of course, it would be ground-breaking if we were able to use this mechanism as a target for medical treatment and turn down the inflow of water to the brain to reduce intracranial pressure. There are no effective medical treatments for a lot of disorders involving increased intracranial pressure. And at worst, the patient may suffer permanent damage and even die as a result of increased pressure. Therefore, this basic mechanism is an important find to us', says Nanna MacAulay.

The researchers stress that the structure of the responsible proteins is the same in mice as in the human cell membrane in plexus chorideus. Therefore, they expect to find the same mechanisms in humans.

As a next step they will try to determine how the inflow of water to the brain can be affected and controlled using the newly discovered mechanism.

The study is based on tests in animals. Thus it has less statistical weight than case/control studies in humans and larger randomized trials in humans.
-end-


University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

Related Brain Articles:

Transplanting human nerve cells into a mouse brain reveals how they wire into brain circuits
A team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Vincent Bonin (VIB-KU Leuven, Université libre de Bruxelles and NERF) showed how human nerve cells can develop at their own pace, and form highly precise connections with the surrounding mouse brain cells.
Brain scans reveal how the human brain compensates when one hemisphere is removed
Researchers studying six adults who had one of their brain hemispheres removed during childhood to reduce epileptic seizures found that the remaining half of the brain formed unusually strong connections between different functional brain networks, which potentially help the body to function as if the brain were intact.
Alcohol byproduct contributes to brain chemistry changes in specific brain regions
Study of mouse models provides clear implications for new targets to treat alcohol use disorder and fetal alcohol syndrome.
Scientists predict the areas of the brain to stimulate transitions between different brain states
Using a computer model of the brain, Gustavo Deco, director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, and Josephine Cruzat, a member of his team, together with a group of international collaborators, have developed an innovative method published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Sept.
BRAIN Initiative tool may transform how scientists study brain structure and function
Researchers have developed a high-tech support system that can keep a large mammalian brain from rapidly decomposing in the hours after death, enabling study of certain molecular and cellular functions.
Wiring diagram of the brain provides a clearer picture of brain scan data
In a study published today in the journal BRAIN, neuroscientists led by Michael D.
Blue Brain Project releases first-ever digital 3D brain cell atlas
The Blue Brain Cell Atlas is like ''going from hand-drawn maps to Google Earth'' -- providing previously unavailable information on major cell types, numbers and positions in all 737 brain regions.
Landmark study reveals no benefit to costly and risky brain cooling after brain injury
A landmark study, led by Monash University researchers, has definitively found that the practice of cooling the body and brain in patients who have recently received a severe traumatic brain injury, has no impact on the patient's long-term outcome.
Brain cells called astrocytes have unexpected role in brain 'plasticity'
Researchers from the Salk Institute have shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known.
Largest brain study of 62,454 scans identifies drivers of brain aging
In the largest known brain imaging study, scientists from Amen Clinics (Costa Mesa, CA), Google, John's Hopkins University, University of California, Los Angeles and the University of California, San Francisco evaluated 62,454 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scans of more than 30,000 individuals from 9 months old to 105 years of age to investigate factors that accelerate brain aging.
More Brain News and Brain Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Teaching For Better Humans 2.0
More than test scores or good grades–what do kids need for the future? This hour, TED speakers explore how to help children grow into better humans, both during and after this time of crisis. Guests include educators Richard Culatta and Liz Kleinrock, psychologist Thomas Curran, and writer Jacqueline Woodson.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#556 The Power of Friendship
It's 2020 and times are tough. Maybe some of us are learning about social distancing the hard way. Maybe we just are all a little anxious. No matter what, we could probably use a friend. But what is a friend, exactly? And why do we need them so much? This week host Bethany Brookshire speaks with Lydia Denworth, author of the new book "Friendship: The Evolution, Biology, and Extraordinary Power of Life's Fundamental Bond". This episode is hosted by Bethany Brookshire, science writer from Science News.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Space
One of the most consistent questions we get at the show is from parents who want to know which episodes are kid-friendly and which aren't. So today, we're releasing a separate feed, Radiolab for Kids. To kick it off, we're rerunning an all-time favorite episode: Space. In the 60's, space exploration was an American obsession. This hour, we chart the path from romance to increasing cynicism. We begin with Ann Druyan, widow of Carl Sagan, with a story about the Voyager expedition, true love, and a golden record that travels through space. And astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson explains the Coepernican Principle, and just how insignificant we are. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.