TNT could be headed for retirement after 116 years on the jobJune 14, 2018
LOS ALAMOS, N.M., June 14, 2018--Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Maryland have developed a novel "melt-cast" explosive material that could be a suitable replacement for Trinitrotoluene, more commonly known as TNT.
"The Army and the Laboratory, through the Joint Munitions Program, have been looking for a TNT replacement," said David Chavez, an explosives chemist at Los Alamos. "Something with non- or low-toxicity that has the right melting point so it can be liquified and cast, for use in a variety of munitions."
The new molecule is a nitrogen-containing compound called bis-oxadiazole. Chavez has been developing high-nitrogen explosive compounds for decades at Los Alamos, with particular emphasis on low explosive sensitivity and good environmental properties.
"One major challenge was coming up with a formula that would significantly surpass the explosive energy of TNT, but still have melt-casting capability" said Chavez. "When designing a molecule to be melt-castable, yet high performing, you typically encounter many challenges due to numerous obstacles."
One of the biggest challenges was getting a high enough yield of the material out of the synthesis process. An early procedure produced only a 4 percent yield, far too low to be practical and affordable. After several iterations of the process the scientists boosted the yield to 44 percent.
Working with Jesse Sabatini and colleagues at Aberdeen, they developed a 24-atom molecule that's packed with nitrogen, and has increased performance 1.5 times greater than TNT. The full chemical name is bis(1,2,4-oxadiazole)bis(methylene)dinitrate.
Research will continue with production of the material on a kilogram scale, a battery of explosive testing as well as future toxicity studies.
The Environmental Protection Agency has listed TNT as a possible carcinogen, and exposure to the material has been linked to disorders of the blood, such as anemia, and abnormal liver function, according to the Centers for Disease Control. TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand but its full potential as an explosive wasn't discovered until 1891. TNT has been in use as a munitions explosive since 1902.
The research was published on May 25, 2018 in the American Chemical Society's journal, Organic Process Research & Development.
-end-About Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, a team composed of Bechtel National, the University of California, BWX Technologies, Inc. and URS Corporation for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.
Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health and global security concerns.
DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory
Related Research Articles:
Related Research Reading:
Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches
by John W. Creswell (Author), J. David Creswell (Author)
The Craft of Research, Fourth Edition (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing)
by Wayne C. Booth (Author), Gregory G. Colomb (Author), Joseph M. Williams (Author), Joseph Bizup (Author), William T. FitzGerald (Author)
Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches
by John W. Creswell (Author), Cheryl N. Poth (Author)
Understanding Research Methods
by Mildred L. Patten (Author), Michelle Newhart (Editor)
Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches
by John W. Creswell (Author)
Research Methods in Psychology: Evaluating a World of Information (Third Edition)
by Beth Morling (Author)
Methods in Behavioral Research
by Paul C. Cozby (Author), Scott Bates (Author)
Empowerment Series: Essential Research Methods for Social Work
by Allen Rubin (Author), Earl R. Babbie (Author)
Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice
by Denise F. Polit PhD FAAN (Author), Cheryl Tatano Beck DNSc CNM FAAN (Author)
Single-Case Research Designs: Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings
by Alan E. Kazdin (Author)