Sculpting with graphene foamJune 14, 2018
HOUSTON - (June 14, 2018) - Rice University scientists have developed a simple way to produce conductive, three-dimensional objects made of graphene foam.
The squishy solids look and feel something like a child's toy but offer new possibilities for energy storage and flexible electronic sensor applications, according to Rice chemist James Tour.
The technique detailed in Advanced Materials is an extension of groundbreaking work by the Tour lab that produced the first laser-induced graphene (LIG) in 2014 by heating inexpensive polyimide plastic sheets with a laser.
The laser burns halfway through the plastic and turns the top into interconnected flakes of 2D carbon that remain attached to the bottom half. LIG can be made in macroscale patterns at room temperature.
The lab extended its technique to create LIG on wood and even food, but 3D objects of pure graphene were less practical until now, Tour said.
"Now we have built a prototype machine that lets us make graphene foam into 3D objects through automated successive layering and laser exposure," Tour said. "This truly brings graphene into the third dimension without furnaces or the need for metal catalysts, and our process is easily scaled."
The new method is based on laminated object manufacturing, in which layers of a material are assembled and then cut to shape. In this case, the bottom LIG layer remains attached to its polyimide base. A second layer is coated with ethylene glycol and placed facedown on the first, like a jelly sandwich. Its polyimide top is then burned into graphene; the process is repeated until the block is complete.
The ethylene glycol binder is evaporated away on a hot plate, and any remaining polyimide can be removed in a furnace. That leaves a pristine, spongy carbon block, said Duy Xuan Luong, a Rice graduate student and co-lead author of the paper. The Rice lab stacked up to five layers of foam and then used a custom-built fiber lasing system on a modified 3D printer to mill the block into complex shapes.
The lab assembled proof-of-concept lithium-ion capacitors that used 3D LIG as both anodes and cathodes. The anode's gravimetric capacity of 354 milliamp hours per gram neared the theoretical limit of graphite, while the cathode's capacity exceeded the average capacity of other carbon materials. Full test cells retained about 70 percent of their capacity after 970 charge-discharge cycles.
"This is excellent performance in these new-generation lithium-ion capacitors, which capture the best properties of lithium-ion batteries and capacitor hybrids," Tour said.
The researchers then infused a block of 3D LIG with liquid polydimethylsiloxane through its 20- to 30-nanometer pores. This created a stronger, still-flexible, conductive material without changing the original foam's shape. From this material, they made a flexible sensor that accurately recorded the pulse from the wrist of a volunteer and said further calibration of the device would let them extract blood pressure from the pulse waveform.
The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Vietnam Education Foundation supported the research.
Read the abstract at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201707416.
This news release can be found online at http://news.rice.edu/2018/06/14/sculpting-with-graphene-foam/
Follow Rice News and Media Relations via Twitter @RiceUNews.
A customized 3D printer set inside an industrial laser allowed a Rice University lab to make graphene foam into 3D objects through automated successive layering and laser exposure. (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)
Tour Group: http://www.jmtour.com
Ajayan Research Group: http://ajayan.rice.edu
Lou Group: http://n3lab.rice.edu
Wiess School of Natural Sciences: http://natsci.rice.edu
George R. Brown School of Engineering: https://engineering.rice.edu
Images for download:
Rice University scientists are making 3D laser-induced graphene (LIG) foam through an automated process that begins by turning the top layer of a polyimide (PI) sheet into graphene (top), stacking another layer on top (center) with ethylene glycol (EG) as a binder and then burning the top layer's PI into graphene as well (bottom). The process is repeated as necessary to build up a 3D block that can be shaped. (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)
Rice University scientists have layered laser-induced graphene and built a prototype that shapes the resulting 3D blocks into sophisticated shapes. The foam offers new possibilities for energy storage and flexible electronic sensor applications. (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)
Rice University graduate student Duy Xuan Luong suspends a three-dimensional block of laser-induced graphene atop two willows. The lab uses an industrial laser to transform inexpensive polyimide plastic into graphene foam at room temperature, and then binds the sheets to produce lightweight, conductive 3D graphene. (Credit: Rice University) Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,970 undergraduates and 2,934 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is just under 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for quality of life and for lots of race/class interaction and No. 2 for happiest students by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to http://tinyurl.com/RiceUniversityoverview. David Ruth
Related Graphene Articles:
University of Illinois at Chicago scientists have discovered a new chemical method that enables graphene to be incorporated into a wide range of applications while maintaining its ultra-fast electronics.
Graphene, the two-dimensional, ultra lightweight and super-strong carbon film, has been hailed as a wonder material since its discovery in 2004.
Scientists have developed a new method of characterizing graphene's properties without applying disruptive electrical contacts, allowing them to investigate both the resistance and quantum capacitance of graphene and other two-dimensional materials.
Graphene is considered as one of the most promising new materials.
Researchers have developed a technique for converting positively charged (p-type) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into negatively charged (n-type) rGO, creating a layered material that can be used to develop rGO-based transistors for use in electronic devices.
This prestigious Conference to be held at the Barcelona International Convention Centre (March 28-31) aims to bring together academia and industry to integrate new graphene technologies into practical applications.
A breakthrough by CSIRO-led scientists has made the world's strongest material more commercially viable, thanks to the humble soybean.
By interfacing brain cells onto graphene, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have shown they can differentiate a single hyperactive cancerous cell from a normal cell, pointing the way to developing a simple, noninvasive tool for early cancer diagnosis.
DGIST developed cryogenic microwave photodetector which is able to detect 100,000 times smaller light energy compared to the existing photedetectors.
IBS researchers report a fundamental study of how graphene is hydrogenated.
Related Graphene Reading:
Graphene: The Superstrong, Superthin, and Superversatile Material That Will Revolutionize the World
by Les Johnson (Author), Joseph E. Meany (Author)
Two scientists give an enthusiastic, layperson's overview of a new supermaterial now in development that could transform many features of daily life, from creating new conveniences to improving health and safety.
What if you discovered an infinitesimally thin material capable of conducting electricity, able to suspend millions of times its own weight, and yet porous enough to filter the murkiest water? And what if this incredible substance is created from the same element that fills the common pencil? That's graphene--a flat, two-dimensional, carbon-based molecule with a single... View Details
Graphene: Fundamentals and emergent applications
by Jamie H. Warner (Author), Franziska Schaffel (Author), Mark Rummeli (Author), Alicja Bachmatiuk (Author)
Providing fundamental knowledge necessary to understand graphene’s atomic structure, band-structure, unique properties and an overview of groundbreaking current and emergent applications, this new handbook is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists and physicists.
Since the 2010 physics Nobel Prize awarded to Geim and Novosolev for their groundbreaking work isolating graphene from bulk graphite, there has been a huge surge in interest in the area. This has led to a large number of news books on graphene. However, for such a vast inflow of new entrants, the current... View Details
Graphene: An Introduction to the Fundamentals and Industrial Applications (Advanced Material Series)
by Madhuri Sharon (Editor), Maheshwar Sharon (Editor), Ashutosh Tiwari (Editor), Hisanori Shinohara (Editor)
Often described as a “miracle material”, graphene’s potential applications are extraordinary, ranging from nanoscale ‘green’ technologies, to sensors and future conductive coatings.
This book covers the topic of ‘graphene’ – the history, fundamental properties, methods of production and applications of this exciting new material. The style of the book is both scientific and technical – it is accessible to an audience that has a general, undergraduate-level background in the sciences or engineering, and is aimed at industries considering graphene applications.... View Details
Graphene: Carbon in Two Dimensions
by Mikhail I. Katsnelson (Author)
Graphene is the thinnest known material, a sheet of carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal cells a single atom thick, and yet stronger than diamond. It has potentially significant applications in nanotechnology, 'beyond-silicon' electronics, solid-state realization of high-energy phenomena and as a prototype membrane which could revolutionise soft matter and 2D physics. In this book, leading graphene research theorist Mikhail Katsnelson presents the basic concepts of graphene physics. Topics covered include Berry phase, topologically protected zero modes, Klein tunneling, vacuum reconstruction... View Details
Graphene: A New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics
by E. L. Wolf (Author)
The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law.
The book describes the... View Details
Graphene: Fabrication, Characterizations, Properties and Applications
by Hongwei Zhu (Author)
Graphene: Fabrication, Characterizations, Properties and Applications presents a comprehensive review of the current status of graphene, especially focused on synthesis, fundamental properties and future applications, aiming to giving a comprehensive reference for scientists, researchers and graduate students from various sectors. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon hexagons, has stimulated a lot of research interest owing to its unique structure and fascinating properties.
The book is devoted to understanding graphene fundamentally yet comprehensively through a wide... View Details
Graphene: Synthesis and Applications (Nanomaterials and their Applications)
by Wonbong Choi (Editor), Jo-won Lee (Editor)
Since the late 20th century, graphene―a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice―has garnered appreciable attention as a potential next-generation electronic material due to its exceptional properties. These properties include high current density, ballistic transport, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and super hydrophobicity at nanometer scale.
In contrast to research on its excellent electronic and optoelectronic properties, research on the syntheses of a single sheet of... View Details
Graphene: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications
by Serhii Shafraniuk (Author)
Graphene is the first example of two-dimensional materials and is the most important growth area of contemporary research. It forms the basis for new nanoelectronic applications. Graphene, which comprises field-effect structures, has remarkable physical properties.
This book focuses on practical applications determined by the unique properties of graphene. Basic concepts are elucidated by end-of-chapter problems, the answers to which are provided in the accompanying solutions manual. The mechanisms of electric and thermal transport in the gated graphene, interface phenomena,... View Details
The Graphene Handbook (2018 edition)
by Ron Mertens (Author)
The Graphene Handbook is a comprehensive guide to graphene technology, industry and market - brought to you by Graphene-Info, the world's leading graphene publication. The Graphene Handbook provides a great introduction to the world of graphene and covers everything you need to know about the graphene industry, market and technology. It is an invaluable guide for material engineers, business developers, researchers, equipment vendors, graphene material companies, private investors and anyone who wants to learn more about graphene today and in the future. View Details
Graphene: Energy Storage and Conversion Applications (Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion)
by Zhaoping Liu (Author), Xufeng Zhou (Author)
Suitable for readers from broad backgrounds, Graphene: Energy Storage and Conversion Applications describes the fundamentals and cutting-edge applications of graphene-based materials for energy storage and conversion systems. It provides an overview of recent advancements in specific energy technologies, such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, lithium sulfur batteries, and lithium air batteries. It also considers the outlook of industrial applications in the near future. Offering a brief introduction to the major synthesis methods of graphene, the... View Details