Nav: Home

Cytokine profile differentiating Old World and New World hantaviral infections

June 15, 2017

Hantavirus infection is acute zoonosis clinically manifesting in two forms: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), caused by Old World hantaviruses, and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), caused by New World hantaviruses. Mild form of HFRS, Nephropaia epidemica (NE), is diagnosed in Tatarstan region of Russia, while HPS is endemic in Americas. Humans become infected by inhaling virus contaminated aerosol of urine and feces. The pathogenesis of NE and HPS remains largely unknown. Endothelial cells are identified as the main target; however no cell damage due to virus replication has been documented. There is no single factor identified to explain the complexity of the NE and HPS pathogenesis; therefore, it has been suggested that "cytokine storm" may play crucial role in disease presentation.

In order to identify the serological markers distinguishing NE and HPS, team led by Dr Svetlana Khaiboullina (University of Nevada, Reno, USA) and Prof Albert Rizvanov (Kazan Federal University, Russia) initiated study of the cytokine profile of serum samples collected during early and late phases of HPS and NE. For that, a team of collaborators from Argentina, Japan, USA and Russia was established as part of Kazan Federal University Program of Competitive Growth (Project 5-100). This team included experts in HPS and NE diagnosis and clinical management, statistical analysis of OMICs, and experts in the disease pathogenesis. Serum levels of 48 cytokines were analyzed using Luminex multiplex magnetic bead-based antibody detection assay.

Overall, HPS serum cytokine profile revealed more proinflammatory status in HPS cases as compared to NE. Furthermore, HPS was characterized by exclusively upregulated serum cytokine levels, with no cytokines being downregulated. On the contrary, NE cases were characterized by dichotomy in serum cytokine level. Additionally, we have found that severe form of hantavirus zoonosis, HPS, is characterized by higher number of cytokines upregulated (total of 40) as compared to NE, where only 21 cytokines were upregulated. Taken together, our analysis of serum cytokine profile in HPS and NE cases suggests that although HPS and NE share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine markers separating these diseases. These markers include: 1. severe inflammatory response in HPS cases, where interleukin 18 (IL18) may play the key role; 2. remarkable activation of Th1 type of immune response in HPS cases as compared to NE; 3. strong activation of innate immune response, especially NK cells in HPS cases as compared to NE. HPS and NE serum cytokine profile presents evidence to suggest degradation of extracellular matrix, increased mononuclear leukocyte proliferation and transendothelial migration.
Results of research published in Frontiers in Immunology, 18 May 2017.

This study was supported by Russian Science Foundation grant 15-14-00016.

Kazan Federal University

Related Immune Response Articles:

Discovering the early age immune response in foals
Researchers at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine have discovered a new method to measure tiny amounts of antibodies in foals, a finding described in the May 16 issue of PLOS ONE.
Nixing the cells that nix immune response against cancer
For first time, study characterizes uptick of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the spleens of human cancer patients, paving the way for therapies directed against these cells that collude with cancer.
Jumbled chromosomes may dampen the immune response to tumors
How well a tumor responds to immunotherapy may depend in part on whether its chromosomes are intact or in a state of disarray, a new study reports.
Tailored organoid may help unravel immune response mystery
Cornell and Weill Cornell Medicine researchers report on the use of biomaterials-based organoids in an attempt to reproduce immune-system events and gain a better understanding of B cells.
Tweaking the immune response might be a key to combat neurodegeneration
Patients with Alzheimer's or other neurodegenerative diseases progressively loose neurons yet cannot build new ones.
Estrogen signaling impacted immune response in cancer
New research from The Wistar Institute showed that estrogen signaling was responsible for immunosuppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment across cancer types.
No platelets, no immune response
When a virus attacks our organism, an inflammation appears on the affected area.
Malaria: A genetically attenuated parasite induces an immune response
With nearly 3.2 billion people currently at risk of contracting malaria, scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS and Inserm have experimentally developed a live, genetically attenuated vaccine for Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for the disease.
New finding will help target MS immune response
Researchers have made another important step in the progress towards being able to block the development of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.
Flu infection reveals many paths to immune response
A new study of influenza infection in an animal model broadens understanding of how the immune system responds to flu virus, showing that the process is more dynamic than usually described, engaging a broader array of biological pathways.

Related Immune Response Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Jumpstarting Creativity
Our greatest breakthroughs and triumphs have one thing in common: creativity. But how do you ignite it? And how do you rekindle it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas on jumpstarting creativity. Guests include economist Tim Harford, producer Helen Marriage, artificial intelligence researcher Steve Engels, and behavioral scientist Marily Oppezzo.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#524 The Human Network
What does a network of humans look like and how does it work? How does information spread? How do decisions and opinions spread? What gets distorted as it moves through the network and why? This week we dig into the ins and outs of human networks with Matthew Jackson, Professor of Economics at Stanford University and author of the book "The Human Network: How Your Social Position Determines Your Power, Beliefs, and Behaviours".