Nav: Home

Stem cell transplant from young to old can heal stomach ulcers

June 16, 2016

Bethesda, MD (June 16, 2016) -- Basic and translational research paves the way for breakthroughs that can ultimately change patient care. Three new studies from Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CMGH) -- AGA's basic and translational open-access journal -- provide a glimpse into future treatment strategies for stomach ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease and alcoholic liver disease. Please find summaries below. To speak with the journal authors, please email media@gastro.org.

Healing Stomach Ulcers Through Stem Cell Transplantation

The Development of Spasmolytic Polypeptide/TFF2-Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM) During Gastric Repair Is Absent in the Aged Stomach

By Amy C. Engevik, et al.

Ulcers of the stomach are more common as we age due to a variety of changes, including reduced ability to heal small injuries. Engevik and colleagues show that gastric stem cells isolated from young mice can be transplanted into sites of injury within the stomachs of older mice, and that this results in accelerated repair. The ability of the transplanted young mouse cells, but not stem cells from older mice, to differentiate into a specialized cell type, termed SPEM, which is central to the healing process, appears to be a central component of this. While more work must be done, it is clear that this approach, or other means of inducing older cells to differentiate into SPEM, would be powerful in treatment of gastric injury.

Rethinking the Role of the Gut Microbiome in IBD

Microgeographic Proteomic Networks of the Human Colonic Mucosa and Their Association With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

By Xiaoxiao Li, et al.

The intestinal microbiome has been the subject of intense scientific and lay interest over the past decade, and changes have been correlated with disease states. Most of this work has, however, relied on analyses of microbes within stool, which may not be representative of microbial populations that interface directly with the intestinal lining, i.e. mucosal surface. Further, characterization of stool microbes does not allow analysis of differences that may be present in separate regions of the intestine. Li and colleagues analyzed microbial proteins at the surface of six separate sites within the colon of healthy subjects and those with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The data show that microbial populations at mucosal surfaces are related, but distinct, in separate regions of the colon. This suggests that we must change our view of the microbiome as a soup in which all components are present in equal proportions at all sites to that of a mosaic composed of networks reflecting local mucosal ecology. Such understanding is essential as efforts to manipulate the microbiome for therapeutic purposes continue.

Hydrazine Shows Potential as Therapy for Acute Alcoholic Liver Disease

Acrolein Is a Pathogenic Mediator of Alcoholic Liver Disease and the Scavenger Hydralazine Is Protective in Mice

By Wei-Yang Chen, et al.

Liver disease is caused by many disorders and toxic agents, of which alcohol is the most common. However, the underlying cellular processes that cause widespread damage, which can lead to cirrhosis, are not well defined. Chen and colleagues demonstrates that acrolein -- a byproduct of alcohol consumption that is increased with increased dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids -- mediates many of the damaging effects of alcohol on the liver. Hydrazine -- an acrolein scavenger in clinical use -- protected mice from the damaging effects of alcohol, suggesting that hydralazine or similar drugs might be potential therapies in acute alcoholic liver disease.

Want more basic and translational research? Review other CMGH articles in press by visiting http://cmghjournal.org/inpress.

For all of the articles highlighted here, the authors have no conflicts to disclose.
-end-
About the AGA Institute

The American Gastroenterological Association is the trusted voice of the GI community. Founded in 1897, the AGA has grown to include more than 16,000 members from around the globe who are involved in all aspects of the science, practice and advancement of gastroenterology. The AGA Institute administers the practice, research and educational programs of the organization. http://www.gastro.org.

About Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

CMGH is the newest peer-reviewed journal published by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA). The mission of CMGH is to publish impactful digestive biology research that ranges from mechanisms of normal function to pathobiology and covers a broad spectrum of themes in gastroenterology, hepatology and pancreatology. The journal reports the latest advances in cell biology, immunology, physiology, microbiology, genetics and neurobiology of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic health and disease. For more information, visit http://www.cmghjournal.org.

Like AGA and CMGH on Facebook.

Join AGA on LinkedIn.

Follow us on Twitter @AmerGastroAssn.

Check out our videos on YouTube.

American Gastroenterological Association

Related Stem Cells Articles:

A protein that stem cells require could be a target in killing breast cancer cells
Researchers have identified a protein that must be present in order for mammary stem cells to perform their normal functions.
Approaching a decades-old goal: Making blood stem cells from patients' own cells
Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have, for the first time, generated blood-forming stem cells in the lab using pluripotent stem cells, which can make virtually every cell type in the body.
New research finds novel method for generating airway cells from stem cells
Researchers have developed a new approach for growing and studying cells they hope one day will lead to curing lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis through 'personalized medicine.'
Mature heart muscle cells created in the laboratory from stem cells
Generating mature and viable heart muscle cells from human or other animal stem cells has proven difficult for biologists.
Mutations in bone cells can drive leukemia in neighboring stem cells
DNA mutations in bone cells that support blood development can drive leukemia formation in nearby blood stem cells.
More Stem Cells News and Stem Cells Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Teaching For Better Humans
More than test scores or good grades — what do kids need to prepare them for the future? This hour, guest host Manoush Zomorodi and TED speakers explore how to help children grow into better humans, in and out of the classroom. Guests include educators Olympia Della Flora and Liz Kleinrock, psychologist Thomas Curran, and writer Jacqueline Woodson.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#534 Bacteria are Coming for Your OJ
What makes breakfast, breakfast? Well, according to every movie and TV show we've ever seen, a big glass of orange juice is basically required. But our morning grapefruit might be in danger. Why? Citrus greening, a bacteria carried by a bug, has infected 90% of the citrus groves in Florida. It's coming for your OJ. We'll talk with University of Maryland plant virologist Anne Simon about ways to stop the citrus killer, and with science writer and journalist Maryn McKenna about why throwing antibiotics at the problem is probably not the solution. Related links: A Review of the Citrus Greening...