Children of smokers have more than 5 times higher levels of a nicotine toxin

June 19, 2007

Children who have at least one parent who smokes have 5.5 times higher levels of cotinine, a byproduct of nicotine, in their urine, according to a study by researchers from Warwick Medical School at the the University of Warwick, and the University of Leicester, published online ahead of print in Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Having a mother that smokes was found to have the biggest independent effect on cotinine in the urine - quadrupling it. Having a smoking father doubled the amount of cotinine, one of chemicals produced when the body breaks down nicotine from inhaled smoke to get rid of it.

Sleeping with parents and lower temperature rooms were also associated with increased amounts of cotinine.

Cotinine was measured in 100 urine samples taken from infants aged 12 weeks. Seventy one of the babies had at least one parent that smoked and the parents of the other 33 were non-smokers.

The authors say: 'Smoking babies tend to come from poorer homes, which may have smaller rooms and inadequate heating.

'Higher cotinine levels in colder times of year may be a reflection of the other key factors which influence exposure to passive smoking, such as poorer ventilation or a greater tendency for parents to smoke indoors in winter.'

Sleeping with a parent is a know risk factor for cot death and the authors suggest that one reason for this could be inhalation of, or closeness to clothing or other objects contaminated with, smoke particles during sleep.

Nearly 40% of under-fives are believed to be exposed to tobacco smoke at home, and smoke may be responsible for up to 6,000 deaths per year in young children.

The authors say: 'Babies and children are routinely exposed to cigarette smoking by their carers in their homes, without the legislative protection available to adults in public places.'

But they acknowledge that there are practical difficulties in preventing smoking in private homes because it relies on parents or carers being educated about the harmful effects of passive smoking on their children and then acting on that knowledge.
-end-


University of Warwick

Related Nicotine Articles from Brightsurf:

Nicotine vapour more rewarding for adolescents than adults
University of Guelph researchers are the first to discover that adolescents react differently to e-cigarette vapour than adults.

Understanding the link between nicotine use and misuse of 'benzos'
Lately, misuse of prescription benzodiazepines (such as alprazolam or Xanax, and diazepam or Valium) has been linked to nicotine use.

Popular electronic cigarette may deliver nicotine more effectively than others
When it comes to nicotine delivery, not all electronic cigarettes are created equally, according to Penn State researchers.

Fetal nicotine exposure harms breathing in infants
Exposure to nicotine during development inhibits the function of neurons controlling the tongue, according to research in newborn rats recently published in eNeuro.

Diabetes drug relieves nicotine withdrawal
A drug commonly used to treat Type II diabetes abolishes the characteristic signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats and mice, according to new research published in JNeurosci.

The nicotine in e-cigarettes appears to impair mucus clearance
E-cigarette vaping with nicotine appears to hamper mucus clearance from the airways, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Truth telling about tobacco and nicotine
In 'Truth Telling about Tobacco and Nicotine,' PRC researchers explain that, although there is agreement among researchers about evidence that vaping can be less harmful than combustible cigarettes, the tobacco control community remains divided about how to communicate -- or even whether to communicate -- information about the relative risks of tobacco and nicotine products.

This is a neuron on nicotine
Newly developed sensors visually illustrate how nicotine affects cells from the inside out.

New data suggests nicotine while pregnant alters genes
A University of Houston biomedical research team is reporting that a possible cure for addiction may be found by following the pathways of significantly altered dopamine neurons in newborns who were chronically exposed to nicotine in utero.

Ex-smokers might be better off with high rather than low nicotine e-cigs
Vapers using low rather than high nicotine e-cigarettes may be using their devices more intensely, potentially increasing the risk of exposure to toxins in the vapour, according to new research funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Addiction today.

Read More: Nicotine News and Nicotine Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.