Genetically modified E. coli produce plant product used in foods and cosmetics, Science study says

June 26, 2003

This release is also available in French.

Scientists engineered bacteria to produce bixin, a plant product used in many foods and cosmetics, after uncovering nature's genetic recipe for the pigment. Tomatoes capable of producing bixin, also known as annatto and used to add an orange touch to microwave popcorn and some cheeses, may arise from the advances reported in the 27 June issue of the journal, Science, published by AAAS, the science society.

This research may expand the supply of this economically important plant product used to add an orange touch to microwave popcorn and some cheeses, and texture and color to a variety of creams and cosmetics. Outside the laboratory, bixin is produced by a single, heavily-fruiting, small tropical tree, Bixa orellana.

First, the researchers figured out how the plant itself produces bixin. In addition to locating the three necessary genes, they demonstrated that lycopene is the physical precursor to bixin. Lycopene is the compound known to make tomatoes red.

Next, the authors moved to replicate this biosynthetic pathway in another organism.

"We chose to start with E. coli because you can insert all the genes at once. Tomatoes will be more complicated," explained senior author Bilal Camara from CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, France.

Bixin genes are not the only genetic ingredient. The scientists added these genes to E. coli already engineered to produce lycopene. When the E. coli growing in test tubes began to produce bixin, they did not change color because the lycopene had already turned these single-celled bacteria red.

Lycopene is an antioxidant that gives foods such as tomatoes, watermelon and pink grapefruit their red color. It has made recent headlines as scientists investigate lycopene as a compound that may reduce the risk for some kinds of cancer.

The next step, according to Camara, is to insert the genes that produce this pigment into tomatoes, or other fruit that produce large amounts of lycopene naturally.

"Tomatoes could become bixin factories," said Camara who explained that the three bixin genes would each have to be added to separate plants. These plants could be crossed to breed plants with the full complement of bixin genes. Alternatively, a vector allowing insertion of several genes could be used. Camara is hoping to have bixin-producing tomatoes in about two years.

Camara explained why he is focused on harnessing the power of living organisms to produce bixin.

"Living organisms can be engineered to constantly make the enzymes required for bixin synthesis. It's the best way," said Camara who explained that managing all the enzymes in a non-biological synthesis scenario would be difficult.

"The bixin produced in E. coli is exactly the same compound as the bixin harvested from the plant. There is no difference," said Camara.

Throughout the tropical world, people grow the plants that produce bixin on plantations. Others harvest the red seed pods from wild plants.

Bixin has been used by humans in such a wide range of products because it easily mixes and dissolves into both water-based and oil-based products destined for human consumption and human adornment. Indigenous tribes in the rainforests of South America have long used the seeds of Bixa orellana as a body paint and fabric dye. From Brazilian herbal medicine to jellies and soft drinks, the list of human uses for this yellow-orange pigment derived from the brilliantly red seed covers of Bixa orellana is long and varied.

Lycopene, the precursor to bixin, is a carotenoid. This class of compounds can be described as nature's advertisers. Scientists believe that lycopene's bright red color announces to the world that a tomato is ripe and ready consumption. The authors of this study have demonstrated how a tomato's advertisement (generated in E. coli) can be used to produce bixin, a colorful marketing tool of the plant Bixa orellana. And from this second advertisement, humans produce cosmetics - one of the social and sexual advertisments employed by humans.
Florence Bouvier and Bilal Camara are from Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, CNRS, Université Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, France. Odette Dogbo is from Université d'Abobo-Adjamé in Adibjan Côte d'Ivoire.

Funding for this research was provided in part by European Community grant QLK3-CT-2000-00809

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is the world's largest general scientific society, and publisher of the journal, Science ( AAAS was founded in 1848, and serves some 265 affiliated societies and academies of science, serving 10 million individuals. Science has the largest paid circulation of any peer-reviewed general science journal in the world, with an estimated total readership of one million. The non-profit AAAS ( is open to all and fulfills its mission to "advance science and serve society" through initiatives in science policy; international programs; science education; and more. For the latest research news, log onto EurekAlert!,, the premier science-news Web site, a service of AAAS.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Genes Articles from Brightsurf:

Are male genes from Mars, female genes from Venus?
In a new paper in the PERSPECTIVES section of the journal Science, Melissa Wilson reviews current research into patterns of sex differences in gene expression across the genome, and highlights sampling biases in the human populations included in such studies.

New alcohol genes uncovered
Do you have what is known as problematic alcohol use?

How status sticks to genes
Life at the bottom of the social ladder may have long-term health effects that even upward mobility can't undo, according to new research in monkeys.

Symphony of genes
One of the most exciting discoveries in genome research was that the last common ancestor of all multicellular animals already possessed an extremely complex genome.

New genes out of nothing
One key question in evolutionary biology is how novel genes arise and develop.

Good genes
A team of scientists from NAU, Arizona State University, the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, the Center for Coastal Studies in Massachusetts and nine other institutions worldwide to study potential cancer suppression mechanisms in cetaceans, the mammalian group that includes whales, dolphins and porpoises.

How lifestyle affects our genes
In the past decade, knowledge of how lifestyle affects our genes, a research field called epigenetics, has grown exponentially.

Genes that regulate how much we dream
Sleep is known to allow animals to re-energize themselves and consolidate memories.

The genes are not to blame
Individualized dietary recommendations based on genetic information are currently a popular trend.

Timing is everything, to our genes
Salk scientists discover critical gene activity follows a biological clock, affecting diseases of the brain and body.

Read More: Genes News and Genes Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to