Nav: Home

Researchers survey immune molecules found inside mycetoma lesions

July 11, 2019

Mycetoma is a common neglected disease caused by either fungi or bacteria which organize themselves into grains--areas of inflammation surrounded by a collagen capsule. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have studied two immune molecules inside these grains and discovered patterns to where the molecules appear.

Mycetoma is caused by any of 56 different microorganisms and is endemic to many tropical and subtropical areas. It usually affects young adults and children and is most common in farmers and other workers who deal directly with soil. Mycetoma appears as a slow-growing tumor-like mass that gradually increases in size. Previous research has revealed that there are three zones of inflammatory cells surrounding mycetoma grains. However, the immunopathological mechanisms involved in the chronic inflammation of mycetoma have not been well understood.

In the new work, Ahmed Hassan Fahal of the University of Khartoum, Sudan, and colleagues studied surgical biopsies from 100 patients with confirmed mycetoma. They measured expression levels of two immune proteins--interleukin-17 (IL-17) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9)--in cells from each zone in the mycetoma grains.

While IL-17 was mostly found in Zones I and II of the grains, MMP-9 was present primarily in the more outer Zones II and III. Levels of the two immune molecules corresponded with each other, and were associated with the disease duration and lesion size. Moreover, levels of MMP-9 also varied by the causative agent of mycetoma. In experiments in mice, animals deficient in IL-17 , granuloma formation was impaired, suggesting an importance of the molecule in early infection.

"The observations presented here are the first step and indicate that IL-17A and MMP-9 are present within the grain," the researchers say. "The functions of IL-17A and MMP-9 in the formation of the grain will be studied in future studies."
-end-
Citation: Siddig EE, Mohammed Edris AM, Bakhiet SM, van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH (2019) Interleukin-17 and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression in the mycetoma granuloma. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13(7): e0007351. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007351

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available paper: http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0007351.

PLOS

Related Molecules Articles:

The inner lives of molecules
Researchers from Canada, the UK and Germany have developed a new experimental technique to take 3-D images of molecules in action.
Novel technique helps ID elusive molecules
Stuart Lindsay, a researcher at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, has devised a clever means of identifying carbohydrate molecules quickly and accurately.
How solvent molecules cooperate in reactions
Molecules from the solvent environment that at first glance seem to be uninvolved can be essential for chemical reactions.
A new way to display the 3-D structure of molecules
Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley Researchers have developed nanoscale display cases that enables new atomic-scale views of hard-to-study chemical and biological samples.
Bending hot molecules
Hot molecules are found in extreme environments such as the edges of fusion reactors.
At attention, molecules!
University of Iowa chemists have learned about a molecular assembly that may help create quicker, more responsive touch screens, among other applications.
Folding molecules into screw-shaped structures
An international research team describes the methods of winding up molecules into screw-shaped structures.
Artificial molecules
A new method allows scientists at ETH Zurich and IBM to fabricate artificial molecules out of different types of microspheres.
Molecules that may keep you young and alive
A new study may have uncovered the fountain of youth: plant extracts containing the six best groups of anti-aging molecules ever seen.
Fun with Lego (molecules)
A great childhood pleasure is playing with Legos® and marveling at the variety of structures you can create from a small number of basic elements.

Related Molecules Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Digital Manipulation
Technology has reshaped our lives in amazing ways. But at what cost? This hour, TED speakers reveal how what we see, read, believe — even how we vote — can be manipulated by the technology we use. Guests include journalist Carole Cadwalladr, consumer advocate Finn Myrstad, writer and marketing professor Scott Galloway, behavioral designer Nir Eyal, and computer graphics researcher Doug Roble.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#530 Why Aren't We Dead Yet?
We only notice our immune systems when they aren't working properly, or when they're under attack. How does our immune system understand what bits of us are us, and what bits are invading germs and viruses? How different are human immune systems from the immune systems of other creatures? And is the immune system so often the target of sketchy medical advice? Those questions and more, this week in our conversation with author Idan Ben-Barak about his book "Why Aren't We Dead Yet?: The Survivor’s Guide to the Immune System".