Nav: Home

Obesity and inflammation -- A deadly combination for prostate cancer

July 17, 2018

Osaka - Inflammation and evasion of the immune system have been reported to be some of the new hallmarks of cancer. Notably, a high-fat diet (HFD) causes obesity and chronic inflammation, and studies conducted on mice have shown that HFD could be associated with progression and survival of prostate cancer. In human studies, inflammation and immune cells are also linked to prostate cancer.

While much is known about how HFD increases serum proinflammatory cytokines (small proteins that are important in cell signaling), it remains unclear whether tumor progression resulted from these cytokines.

In their latest study, which was reported in Clinical Cancer Research, a team of Osaka University-centered researchers successfully determined the mechanisms of the associations of prostate cancer with inflammation and immune responses.

"We administered an HFD and anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib to a genetically engineered autochthonous mouse model, which corresponds to somatic mutations of human prostate cancer model mice," explains study lead author Takuji Hayashi. "Tumor growth was evaluated by tumor weight and Ki67 stain, and local immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry at 22 weeks of age. Further, cytokines that correlated with tumor growth were identified."

The researchers found that HFD accelerated tumor growth and increased the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) fraction and the ratio of M2/M1 macrophage, a major type of immune cells, in the model mice. MDSCs regulate immune responses and tissue repair in healthy individuals and the population rapidly expands during inflammation, infection and cancer. Celecoxib was observed to suppress tumor growth and reduced local MDSCs and M2/M1 macrophage ratio in HFD-fed mic.

Administration of antibody specific to the receptor of cytokine IL6 suppressed tumor growth, and decreased local MDSCs and pSTAT3-positive cell fractions in HFD-fed mice. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT3 is phosphorylated (to become pSTAT3) and translocated to the cell nucleus, where it acts as a gene transcription activator. The tumor-infiltrating CD11b-positive cell count was also found to be significantly higher in prostatectomy specimens of obese patients than in those of non-obese patients with prostate cancer.

"Taken together, our results suggest that HFD-induced prostate cancer growth via IL6 signaling could also exist in obese humans," says corresponding author Kazutoshi Fujita. "Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as celecoxib, may have clinical benefits for obese patients with prostate cancer. Additionally, an improvement of dietary habits or an intake of analgesic may lead to prophylaxis and contribute to the treatment of prostate cancer."
-end-
Osaka University was founded in 1931 as one of the seven imperial universities of Japan and now has expanded to one of Japan's leading comprehensive universities. The University has now embarked on open research revolution from a position as Japan's most innovative university and among the most innovative institutions in the world according to Reuters 2015 Top 100 Innovative Universities and the Nature Index Innovation 2017. The university's ability to innovate from the stage of fundamental research through the creation of useful technology with economic impact stems from its broad disciplinary spectrum.

Website: http://resou.osaka-u.ac.jp/en/top

Osaka University

Related Prostate Cancer Articles:

First prostate cancer therapy to target genes delays cancer progression
For the first time, prostate cancer has been treated based on the genetic makeup of the cancer, resulting in delayed disease progression, delayed time to pain progression, and potentially extending lives in patients with advanced, metastatic prostate cancer, reports a large phase 3 trial.
Men taking medications for enlarged prostate face delays in prostate cancer diagnosis
University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that men treated with medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) experienced a two-year delay in diagnosis of their prostate cancer and were twice as likely to have advanced disease upon diagnosis.
CNIO researchers confirm links between aggressive prostate cancer and hereditary breast cancer
The study has potential implications for families with members suffering from these types of tumours who are at an increased risk of developing cancer.
Distinguishing fatal prostate cancer from 'manageable' cancer now possible
Scientists at the University of York have found a way of distinguishing between fatal prostate cancer and manageable cancer, which could reduce unnecessary surgeries and radiotherapy.
Researchers find prostate cancer drug byproduct can fuel cancer cells
A genetic anomaly in certain men with prostate cancer may impact their response to common drugs used to treat the disease, according to new research at Cleveland Clinic.
ASCO and Cancer Care Ontario update guideline on radiation therapy for prostate cancer
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Cancer Care Ontario today issued a joint clinical practice guideline update on brachytherapy (internal radiation) for patients with prostate cancer.
Patient prostate tissue used to create unique model of prostate cancer biology
For the first time, researchers have been able to grow, in a lab, both normal and primary cancerous prostate cells from a patient, and then implant a million of the cancer cells into a mouse to track how the tumor progresses.
Moffitt Cancer Center awarded $3.2 million grant to study bone metastasis in prostate cancer
Moffitt researchers David Basanta, Ph.D., and Conor Lynch, Ph.D., have been awarded a U01 grant to investigate prostate cancer metastasis.
Prostate cancer discovery may make it easier to kill cancer cells
A newly discovered connection between two common prostate cancer treatments may soon make prostate cancer cells easier to destroy.
New test for prostate cancer significantly improves prostate cancer screening
A study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows that a new test for prostate cancer is better at detecting aggressive cancer than PSA.
More Prostate Cancer News and Prostate Cancer Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Rethinking Anger
Anger is universal and complex: it can be quiet, festering, justified, vengeful, and destructive. This hour, TED speakers explore the many sides of anger, why we need it, and who's allowed to feel it. Guests include psychologists Ryan Martin and Russell Kolts, writer Soraya Chemaly, former talk radio host Lisa Fritsch, and business professor Dan Moshavi.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.