T cells trim the fat and protect against obesity

July 25, 2019

Specialized immune cells protect against obesity by regulating the diverse communities of intestinal bacteria in mice, according to a new study, which shows how changes in gut microbiota can influence the development of metabolic disorders. The results suggest the potential for new microbiome-based therapies for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Obesity, a common metabolic syndrome affecting the health of nearly two billion people worldwide, has been linked to a variety of factors including genetics, diet, behavior and most recently, the host's microbiome. Studies in mice have revealed differences in the gut microbiota composition in lean and obese animals, which can predispose a mouse to obesity. Moreover, transplanted microbiota of obese humans can confer metabolic defects into otherwise healthy animals. Building on previous research, which identified the immune system as a key factor in regulating the composition of the microbiome, Charisse Petersen and colleagues discovered that specialized immune cells called T follicular helper (TFH) cells shield mice from obesity by promoting the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies by B cells in the gut. Genetically altered mice with defective TFH cell development produced little IgA. This resulted in symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including fat accumulation and insulin resistance, which are characteristics of human metabolic disease. According to Petersen et al., dysfunctional IgA production impeded the colonization of Clostridia bacterial species, allowing the expansion of Desulfovibro bacteria. Clostridia and Desulfovibro, respectively, suppress and enhance the expression of genes that direct the absorption of dietary lipids. In a related perspective, Yuhao Wang and Lora Hopper write that "the Petersen et al.'s findings beautifully illuminate how immune system defects can lead to metabolic disease."
-end-


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Obesity Articles from Brightsurf:

11 years of data add to the evidence for using testosterone therapy to treat obesity, including as an alternative to obesity surgery
New research covering 11 years of data presented at this year's European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) show that, in obese men suffering from hypogonadism (low testosterone), treatment with testosterone injections lowers their weight and improves a wide range of other metabolic parameters.

Overlap between immunology of COVID-19 and obesity could explain the increased risk of death in people living with obesity, and also older patients
Data presented in a special COVID-19 session at the European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) suggests that there are overlaps between the immunological disturbances found in both COVID-19 disease and patients with obesity, which could explain the increased disease severity and mortality risk faced by obese patients, and also elderly patients, who are infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease.

New obesity guideline: Address root causes as foundation of obesity management
besity management should focus on outcomes that patients consider to be important, not weight loss alone, and include a holistic approach that addresses the root causes of obesity, according to a new clinical practice guideline published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) http://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.191707.

Changing the debate around obesity
The UK's National Health Service (NHS) needs to do more to address the ingrained stigma and discrimination faced by people with obesity, says a leading health psychologist.

Study links longer exposure to obesity and earlier development of obesity to increased risk of type 2 diabetes
Cumulative exposure to obesity could be at least as important as actually being obese in terms of risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), concludes new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).

How much do obesity and addictions overlap?
A large analysis of personality studies has found that people with obesity behave somewhat like people with addictions to alcohol or drugs.

Should obesity be recognized as a disease?
With obesity now affecting almost a third (29%) of the population in England, and expected to rise to 35% by 2030, should we now recognize it as a disease?

Is obesity associated with risk of pediatric MS?
A single-center study of 453 children in Germany with multiple sclerosis (MS) investigated the association of obesity with pediatric MS risk and with the response of first-line therapy in children with MS.

Women with obesity prior to conception are more likely to have children with obesity
A systematic review and meta-analysis identified significantly increased odds of child obesity when mothers have obesity before conception, according to a study published June 11, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Nicola Heslehurst of Newcastle University in the UK, and colleagues.

Obesity medicine association announces major updates to its adult obesity algorithm
The Obesity Medicine Association (OMA) announced the immediate availability of the 2019 OMA Adult Obesity Algorithm, with new information for clinicians including the relationship between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, and Cancer; information on investigational Anti-Obesity Pharmacotherapy; treatments for Lipodystrophy; and Pharmacokinetics and Obesity.

Read More: Obesity News and Obesity Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.