Nav: Home

Super-resolution microscopy sheds light on how dementia protein becomes dysfunctional

August 01, 2019

University of Queensland researchers have used super-resolution microscopy to observe key molecules at work inside living brain cells, further unravelling the puzzle of memory formation and the elusive causes of dementia.

UQ Queensland Brain Institute's Clem Jones Centre for Ageing and Dementia Research Professors Frédéric Meunier and Jürgen Götz found a protein, Tau, involved in Alzheimer's disease affects the organisation of the signalling protein Fyn, which plays a critical role in memory formation.

"One of the distinguishing features of Alzheimer's disease is the tangles of Tau protein that form inside brain cells, but this is the first time anyone has demonstrated that Fyn nanoclustering is affected by Tau," Professor Götz said.

Professor Meunier said single molecule imaging in living brain cells allowed unprecedented access to the organisation of key proteins in small nanoclusters that were not detectable previously.

"We have shown that Tau controls the Fyn nanoclustering in dendrites, where the communication between brain cells occurs," Professor Meunier said.

"When Tau is mutated, Fyn makes aberrantly large clusters, thereby altering nerve signals and contributing to dysfunction of the synapse-junctions between nerve cells."

Professor Meunier's team used the super-resolution single molecule imaging technique to see how Tau and its mutants control Fyn nanoclustering.

Professor Meunier went on to investigate a different mutant of Tau found in families with a very high risk of developing frontotemporal dementia and found that Fyn was over-clustered in the spines of dendrites.

"Imagine that you have clustering of Fyn, a signalling molecule, throughout your life; it's going to give rise to an over-signalling problem -- this could be one of the ways in which Fyn is toxic to cells," he said.

"The spines of the dendrites are critical to how nerve cells communicate with each other and underpin memory and learning."

Exactly what causes Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia is still a mystery, but Fyn is linked to both the plaques of amyloid protein that form between brain cells, and tangles of Tau protein that form inside brain cells -- two distinguishing features of Alzheimer's disease.

"Super-resolution single molecule imaging gives us an unprecedented insights into what is happening in living nerve cells, with the aim of understanding the biology behind these complex and debilitating diseases," Professor Meunier said.
-end-
The study was published in the journal eLife and supported by organisations including the Australian and Queensland governments, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and the Australian Research Council.

University of Queensland

Related Science Articles:

75 science societies urge the education department to base Title IX sexual harassment regulations on evidence and science
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) today led 75 scientific societies in submitting comments on the US Department of Education's proposed changes to Title IX regulations.
Science/Science Careers' survey ranks top biotech, biopharma, and pharma employers
The Science and Science Careers' 2018 annual Top Employers Survey polled employees in the biotechnology, biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, and related industries to determine the 20 best employers in these industries as well as their driving characteristics.
Science in the palm of your hand: How citizen science transforms passive learners
Citizen science projects can engage even children who previously were not interested in science.
Applied science may yield more translational research publications than basic science
While translational research can happen at any stage of the research process, a recent investigation of behavioral and social science research awards granted by the NIH between 2008 and 2014 revealed that applied science yielded a higher volume of translational research publications than basic science, according to a study published May 9, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Xueying Han from the Science and Technology Policy Institute, USA, and colleagues.
Prominent academics, including Salk's Thomas Albright, call for more science in forensic science
Six scientists who recently served on the National Commission on Forensic Science are calling on the scientific community at large to advocate for increased research and financial support of forensic science as well as the introduction of empirical testing requirements to ensure the validity of outcomes.
More Science News and Science Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Erasing The Stigma
Many of us either cope with mental illness or know someone who does. But we still have a hard time talking about it. This hour, TED speakers explore ways to push past — and even erase — the stigma. Guests include musician and comedian Jordan Raskopoulos, neuroscientist and psychiatrist Thomas Insel, psychiatrist Dixon Chibanda, anxiety and depression researcher Olivia Remes, and entrepreneur Sangu Delle.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...